Bibliography

PART FIVE

CUMULATIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY

To search for an author or article on this page, please press Control-F or Apple-F (on Macs) and use your browser’s search bar

SYNOPSIS

  • Chapters 1 and 12
  • Chapter 2
  • Chapter 3
  • Chapter 4
  • Chapter 5
  • Chapter 6
  • Chapter 7
  • Chapter 8
  • Chapter 9
  • Chapter 10
  • Chapter 11
  • Chapters 1 and 12

THE LANDSCAPE AND HORIZON OF COPYRIGHT

Reference Works

H. Abrams, The Law of Copyright §§ 1.1 to 1.35, 19.1 to 19.24 (2013)

P. Goldstein, Goldstein on Copyright §§ 1.0 to 1.16, 18.0 to 18.9 (2013)

M. Leaffer, Understanding Copyright Law §§ 1.01 to 1.14, 12.01 to 12.12 (5th ed. 2010)

M. Nimmer & D. Nimmer, Nimmer on Copyright, 1-OV, §§ 1.12, 17.01 to 17.13, 18.01 to 18.10 (2013)

W. Patry, Patry on Copyright §§ 1:1 to 1:116, 2:1 to 2:63, 23:1 to 23:76, 24:1 to 24:51 (2013)

Copyright and Related Bodies of Law

M. Adelman & D. Dunner, Patent Law Perspectives (2013)

L. Altman & M. Pollack, Callmann on Unfair Competition, Trademarks, and Monopolies (2013)

F. Cate, Privacy in the Information Age (1997)

D. Chisum, Patents (2013)

R. Harmon, C. Homan & C. McMahon, Patents and the Federal Circuit (10th ed. 2011)

M. Jager, Trade Secrets Law (2013)

A. Gilson Lalonde, Gilson on Trademarks (2013)

A. Lindey & M. Landau, Lindey on Entertainment, Publishing and the Arts (2013)

D. Matthews, Taxation of Intellectual Property and Technology (2011)

J.T. McCarthy, McCarthy on Trademarks and Unfair Competition (2013)

C.R. McManis & D. Friedman, Intellectual Property and Unfair Competition in a Nutshell (2013)

R. Milgrim, Milgrim on Licensing (2013)

R. Milgrim, Milgrim on Trade Secrets (2013)

J. Mills, R. Highley & D. Reiley, Patent Law Fundamentals (2013)

C. Moy, Moy’s Walker on Patents (2013)

F. Schechter, The Historical Foundations of the Law Relating to Trade-Marks (1925)

T. Selz, M. Simensky & P. Acton, Entertainment Law: Legal Concepts and Business Practices (2013)

D. Welkowitz, Trademark Dilution: Federal, State and International Law (2012)

Karjala, Distinguishing Patent and Copyright Subject Matter, 35 Comm. L. Rev. 439 (2003)

Kwall, The Attribution Right in the United States: Caught in the Crossfire Between Copyright and Section 43(a), 77 Wash. L. Rev. 985 (2002)

Litman, Copyright Law as Communications Policy: Convergence of Paradigms and Cultures War Stories, 20 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 337 (2002)

Long, Information Costs in Patent and Copyright, 90 Va. L. Rev. 465 (2004)

Welkowitz & Ochoa, Teaching Rights of Publicity: Blending Copyright and Trademark, Common Law and Statutes, and Domestic and Foreign Law, 52 St. Louis U. L.J. 905 (2008)

Copyright Law History

I. Alexander, Copyright and the Public Interest in the Nineteenth Century (2010)

M. Biagioli, P. Jaszi & M. Woodmansee (eds.), Making and Unmaking Intellectual Property: Creative Production in Legal and Cultural Perspective (2011)

A. Birrell, Seven Lectures on the Law and History of Copyright in Books (1971)

B. Bugbee, Genesis of American Patent and Copyright Law (1967)

A. Clark, The Movement for International Copyright in Nineteenth Century America (1960)

G. Curtis, A Treatise on the Law of Copyright (1847)

R. Deazley, On the Origin of the Right to Copy: Charting the Movement of Copyright Law in Eighteenth-Century Britain (1695–1775) (2004)

R. Deazley, Rethinking Copyright: History, Theory, and Language (2006)

E. Drone, A Treatise on the Law of Property in Intellectual Productions (1879)

D. Eisenstein, The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe (1993)

J. Feather, Publishing, Piracy and Politics: An Historical Study of Copyright in Britain (1994)

J. Gaines, Contested Culture: The Image, the Voice, and the Law (1991)

P. Goldstein, Copyright’s Highway: From Gutenberg to the Celestial Jukebox (2d ed. 2003)

L. Hyde, Common as Air: Revolution, Art and Ownership (2011)

A. Johns, Piracy: The Intellectual Property Wars from Gutenbeg to Gates (2010)

N. Netanel, Copyright’s Paradox (2008)

L. R. Patterson, Copyright in Historical Perspective (1968)

F. Pierce, A Unified Field Theory of Copyright (1870)

A. Rahmatian, The Making of Property Rights in Creative Works (2011)

M. Rose, Authors and Owners: The Invention of Copyright (1993)

P. Saint-Amour (ed.), Modernism and Copyright (2011)

D. Saunders, Authorship and Copyright (1992)

C. Seville, Literary Copyright Reform in Early Victorian England: The Framing of the 1842 Copyright Act (1999)

B. Sherman & A. Strowel, Of Authors and Origins: Essays on Copyright Law (1994)

T. Solberg, Copyright in Congress, 1789–1904: A Bibliography, and Chronological Record of All Proceedings (1905)

E. Walterscheid, The Nature of the Intellectual Property Clause: A Study in Historical Perspective (2002)

L. Zemer, The Idea of Authorship in Copyright (2007)

Abrams, Copyright’s First Compulsory License, 26 Santa Clara Computer & High Tech L.J. 215 (2010)

Abrams, The Historic Foundation of American Copyright Law: Exploding the Myth of Common Law Copyright, 29 Wayne L. Rev. 1119 (1983)

Alexander, All Change for the Digital Economy: Copyright and Business Models in the Early Eighteenth Century, 25 Berkeley Tech. L. J. 1351 (2010)

Aoki, Authors, Inventors and Trademark Owners: Private Intellectual Property and the Public Domain (Parts I & II), 18 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts, 1 & 191 (1994–1995)

Aoki, Neocolonialism, Anticommons Property, and Biopiracy in the (Not-So-Brave) New World Order of International Intellectual Property, 6 Ind. J. Global L. Stud. 11 (1998)

Austin, Does the Copyright Clause Mandate Isolationism?, 26 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 17 (2002)

Band & Weinstein, The Blackmun Papers: A Peek Behind the Scenes of a Quarter Century of Supreme Court Jurisprudence, 28 Colum. J.L. & Arts 315 (2005)

Baker, First Amendment Limits on Copyright, 55 Vand. L. Rev. 13 (2003)

Bauer, Copyright and the First Amendment: Comrades, Combatants, or Uneasy Allies?, 67 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. 831 (2010)

Bedingfield, Copyrighting Medieval Literature: Editing and Publishing the Pre-modern Public Domain, 28 Colum. J. Law & Arts 213 (2005)

Benkler, Through the Looking Glass: Alice and the Constitutional Foundations of the Public Domain, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 173 (2003)

Bentley, R. v. The Author: From Death Penalty to Community Service, 32 Colum. J.L. & Arts 1 (2008)

Bently, Copyright, Translations, and Relations Between Britain and India in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries, 82 Chi.-Kent L. Rev. 1181 (2007)

Bently & Ginsburg, “The Sole Right … Shall Return to the Authors”: Anglo-American Authors’ Reversion Rights from the Statute of Anne to Contemporary U.S. Copyright, 25 Berkeley Tech. L. J. 1475 (2010)

Birnhack, The Idea of Progress in Copyright Law, 1 Buff. Intell. Prop. L.J. 3 (2001)

Bracha, The Ideology of Authorship Revisited: Authors, Markets, and Liberal Values in Early American Copyright, 118 Yale L.J. 186 (2008)

Bracha, The Adventures of the Statute of Anne in the Land of Unlimited Possibilities: The Life of a Legal Transplant, 25 Berkeley Tech. L. J. 1427 (2010)

Bracha, The Statute of Anne: An American Mythology, 47 Hous. L. Rev. 877 (2010)

Cotter, Gutenberg’s Legacy: Copyright, Censorship, and Religious Pluralism, 91 Cal. L. Rev. 323 (2003)

Crawford, Pre-Constitutional Copyright Statutes, 23 Bull. Copyright Soc’y 11 (1975)

Curtin, The “Capricious Privilege”: Rethinking the Origins of Copyright Under the Tudor Regime, 59 J. Copyright Soc’y 391 (2012)

Deazley, Capitol Records v. Naxos of America (2005): Just Another Footnote in the History of Copyright?, 53 J. Copyright Soc’y 23 (2005)

Deazley, The Statute of Anne and the Great Abridgement Swindle, 47 Hous. L. Rev. 793 (2010)

Dutfield & Suthersanen, The Innovation Dilemma: Intellectual Property and the Historical Legacy of Cumulative Creativity, Intell. Prop. Q. 379 (Fall 2004)

Eilenberg, Mortal Pages: Wordsworth and the Reform of Copyright, 56 Eng. Lit. Hist. 351 (1989)

Epstein, Liberty v. Property? Cracks in the Foundation of Copyright Law, 42 San Diego L. Rev. 1 (2005)

Farley, The Lingering Effects of Copyright’s Response to the Invention of Photography, 65 U. Pitt. L Rev. 385 (2004)

Fischman-Afori, The Evoluction of Copyright Law and Inductive Speculations as to Its Future, 19 J. Intell. Prop. L. 231 (2012)

Foster, Prelude to Compatibility between Human Rights and Intellectual Property, 9 Chi. J. Int’l L. 171 (2008)

Geller, Copyright History and the Future: What’s Culture Got to Do With It?, 40 J. Copyright Soc’y 209 (2000)

Gervais, The 1909 Act in International Context, 26 Santa Clara Computer & High Tech. L.J. 185 (2010)

Ginsburg, A Tale of Two Copyrights: Literary Property in Revolutionary France and America, 64 Tul. L. Rev. 991 (1990)

Ginsburg, How Copyright Got a Bad Name for Itself, 26 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 61 (2002)

Ginsburg, The Author’s Place in the Future of Copyright, 45 Willamette L. Rev. 381 (2008)

Ginsburg, “Une Chose Publique”?: The Author’s Domain and the Public Domain in Early British, French and U.S. Copyright Law, 65 Cambridge L.J. 636 (2006)

Goldman, The History of U.S.A. Copyright Law Revision from 1901 to 1954, Copyright Law Revision Study No. 1 (1960)

Goldstein, Copyright’s Commons, 29 Colum. J. L & Arts 1 (2005)

Gomez-Arostegui, The Untold Story of the First Copyright Suit Under the Statute of Anne in 1710, 25 Berkeley Tech. L. J. 1247 (2010)

Hamilton, Copyright at the Supreme Court: A Jurisprudence of Deference, 40 J. Copyright Soc’y 317 (2000)

Hughes, Copyright and Incomplete Historiographies of Piracy, Propertization, and Thomas Jefferson, 79 S. Cal. L. Rev. 993 (2006)

Hughes, The Photographer’s Copyright — Photograph as Art, Photograph as Database, 35 Harv. J.L. & Tech. 339 (2012)

Hulsebosch, An Empire of Law: Chancellor Kent and the Revolution in Books in the Early Republic, 60 Ala. L. Rev. 377 (2009)

Jaszi, Joyce, Leaffer & Ochoa, The Statute of Anne: Today and Tomorrow, 47 Hous. L. Rev. 1013 (2010)

Jaszi, Towards a Theory of Copyright: The Metamorphoses of Authorship, 1991 Duke L.J. 455

Joyce, “A Curious Chapter in the History of Judicature”: Wheaton v. Peters and the Rest of the Story (of Copyright in the New Republic), 42 Hous. L. Rev. 325 (2005)

Joyce, Copyright (and Its Master) in Historical Perspective, 10 J. Intell. Prop. L. 239 (2003)

Joyce, The Rise of the Supreme Court Reporter: An Institutional Perspective on Marshall Court Ascendancy, 83 Mich. L. Rev. 1291 (1985)

Joyce, The Statute of Anne: Yesterday and Today, 47 Hous. L. Rev. 779 (2010)

Kastenmeier, Copyright in an Era of Technological Change: A Political Perspective, 14 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 1 (1989)

Kidwell, Congressman Robert Kastenmeier and Professor John Stedman: A Thirty-Five Year Relationship, 55 Law & Contemp. Probs. 129 (1992)

Kitch, Property Rights in Inventions, Writings, and Marks, 13 Harv. J. L. & Pub. Pol’y 119 (1990)

Lee, Remixing Lessig, 6 I/S: A Journal of Law and Policy for the Information Society 41 (2010)

Lessig, Copyright’s First Amendment, 48 UCLA L. Rev. 1057 (2001)

Leval, An Assembly of Idiots?, 34 Conn. L. Rev. 1049 (2002)

Lipton, Secondary Liability and the Fragmentation of Digital Copyright Law, 3 Akron Intell. Prop J. 105 (2009)

Litman, Copyright as Myth, 53 U. of Pitts. L. Rev. 235 (1991)

Litman, Copyright, Compromise and Legislative History, 72 Cornell L. Rev. 857 (1987)

Litman, Creative Reading, 70 Law & Contemp. Probs. 175 (2007)

Litman, The Invention of the Common Law Play Right, 25 Berkeley Tech. L. J. 1381 (2010)

Litman, The Public Domain, 39 Emory L.J. 965 (1990)

Litman, Real Copyright Reform, 96 Iowa L. Rev. 1 (2010)

Litman, War and Peace (in Copyright), 53 J. Copyright Soc’y 1 (2005)

Loren, The Evolving Role of “For Profit” Use in Copyright Law: Lessons from the 1909 Act, 26 Santa Clara Computer & High Tech. L.J. 255 (2010)

McKeown, Happy Birthday Statute of Anne: The Dance Between the Courts and Congress, 25 Berkeley Tech. L. J. 1145 (2010)

McGinty, First Amendment Rights to Protected Expression: What Are The Traditional Contours of Copyright Law?, 23 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 1099 (2008)

Merges, Symposium on Law in the Twentieth Century: One Hundred Years of Solicitude: Intellectual Property Law, 1900–2000, 88 Cal. L. Rev. 2187 (2000)

Mosoff, Is Copyright Property?, 42 San Diego L. Rev. 29 (2005)

Nachbar, Constructing Copyright’s Mythology, 6 Green Bag 2d 37 (2002)

Netanel, Maharam of Padua v. Guistiniani: The Sixteenth Century Origins of the Jewish Law of Copyright, 44 Hous. L. Rev. 821 (2007)

D. Nimmer, Queen Anne in the Emperor’s Shadow, 47 Hous. L. Rev. 919 (2010)

Ochoa, 1984 and Beyond: Two Decades of Copyright Law, 20 Santa Clara Computer & High Tech. L.J. 167 (2003)

Ochoa, Protection for Works of Foreign Authors Under the 1909 Copyright Act, 26 Santa Clara Computer & High Tech. L.J. 289 (2010)

Ochoa & Rose, The Anti-Monopoly Origins of the Patent and Copyright Clause, 49 J. Copyright Soc’y 675 (2002)

Okediji, Through the Years: The Supreme Court and the Copyright Clause, 30 Wm. Mitchell L. Rev. 1633 (2004)

Olson, The Iron Law of Consensus: Congressional Responses to Proposed Copyright Reforms Since the 1909 Act, 36 J. Copyright Soc’y 109 (1989)

Oman, Bob Kastenmeier and the Legislative Process: Sui Generis and Proud of It, 55 Law & Contemp. Probs. 241 (1992)

Oman, The Copyright Clause: “A Charter For A Living People,” 17 U. Balt. L. Rev. 99 (1987)

O’Melinn, The Recording Industry v. James Madison, aka “Publius”: The Inversion of Culture and Copyright, 35 Seattle U. L. Rev. 75 (2011)

O’Rourke, A Brief History of Author-Publisher Relations and the Outlook for the 21st Century, 50 J. Copyright Soc. 425 (2003)

Patterson, Copyright and “the Exclusive Right” of Authors, 1 J. Intell. Prop. L. 1 (1993)

Patterson & Birch, A Unified Theory of Copyright, 46 Hous. L. Rev. 215 (Joyce ed. 2009)

Patterson & Joyce, Copyright in 1791: An Essay Concerning the Founders’ View of the Copyright Power Granted to Congress in Article I, Section 8, Clause 8 of the U.S. Constitution, 52 Emory L.J. 101 (2003)

Patterson & Joyce, Monopolizing the Law: The Scope of Copyright Protection for Law Reports and Statutory Compilations, 36 UCLA L. Rev. 719 (1989)

Patterson, The Statute of Anne: Copyright Misconstrued, 3 Harv. J. on Legis. 223 (1966)

Patterson, Understanding the Copyright Clause, 40 J. Copyright Soc’y 365 (2000)

Picker, From Edison to the Broadcast Flag: Mechanisms of Consent and Refusal and the Propertization of Copyright, 70 U. Chi. L. Rev. 281 (2003)

Prager, The Early Growth and Influence of Intellectual Property, 34 J. Pat. Off. Soc’y 106 (1952)

Raskind, Grading the Performance of a Legislator, 55 Law & Contemp. Probs. 267 (1992)

Reese, Is the Public Domain Permanent? Congress’ Power to Grant Exclusive Rights in Unpublished Public Domain Works, 30 Colum. J.L. & Arts 531 (2007)

Remington, Robert W. Kastenmeier: Copyright Legislator Par Excellence, 55 Law & Contemp. Probs. 297 (1992)

Rose, The Public Domain: Nine-Tenths of the Law: The English Copyright Debates and the Rhetoric of the Public Domain, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 225 (2003)

Rose, The Public Sphere and the Emergence of Copyright: Areopagitica, the Stationers’ Company, and the Statute of Anne, 12 Tulane J. Tech & I.P. 123 (2009)

Samuelson, Economic and Constitutional Influences on Copyright Law in the United States, 23 E.I.P.R.. 409 (2001)

Seville, Authors as Copyright Campaigners: Mark Twain’s Legacy, 55 J. Copyright Soc’y 283 (2008)

Seville, The Statute of Anne: Rhetoric and Reception in the Nineteenth Century, 47 Hous. L. Rev. 819 (2010)

Stern, “Room for One More”: The Metaphorics of Physical Space in the Eighteenth-Century Copyright Debate, 24 Law & Literature 113 (2012)

Suchman, Invention and Ritual: Notes on the Interrelation of Magic and Intellectual Property in Preliterate Societies, 89 Colum. L. Rev. 1264 (1989)

Temple, Johnson & Macpherson, Cultural Authority and the Construction of Literary Property, 5 Yale J. L. & Human. 355 (1993)

VerSteeg, The Roman Law Roots of Copyright, 59 Md. L. Rev. 522 (2000)

Walterscheid, The Preambular Argument: The Dubious Premise of Eldred v. Ashcroft, 44 IDEA 331 (2004)

Walterscheid, Understanding the Copyright Act of 1790 — The Issue of Common Law Copyright in America and the Modern Interpretation of the Copyright Power, 53 J. Copyright Soc’y 313 (2005)

Whicher, The Ghost of Donaldson v. Beckett: An Inquiry into the Constitutional Distribution of Powers over the Law of Literary Property in the United States (Parts I and II), 9 Bull. Copyright Soc’y 102 & 194 (1961–62)

Zemer, The Copyright Moment, 43 San Diego L. Rev. 247 (2006)

Zimmerman, Authorship without Ownership: Reconsidering Incentives in a Digital Age, 52 DePaul L. Rev. 1121 (2003)

Zimmerman, The Statute of Anne and Its Progeny: Variations Without a Theme, 47 Hous. L. Rev. 965 (2010)

Copyright in a Changing World

R. Barker, Copyright: The New International Conventions (1971)

B. Boateng, The Copyright Thing Doesn’t Work Here: Adinkra and Kente Cloth and Intellecutal Property in Ghana (2011)

A. Bogsch, The Law of Copyright Under the Universal Copyright Convention (3d rev. ed. 1968)

P. Drahos with J. Braithwaite, Information Feudalism: Who Owns the Knowledge Economy? (2003)

M. Ficsor, The Law of Copyright and the Internet: The 1996 WIPO Treaties, Their Interpretation and Implementation (2002)

P.E. Geller, International Copyright Law and Practice (2013)

D. Gervais, The TRIPS Agreement: Drafting History and Analysis (2012)

H. Hansen (ed.), International Intellectual Property Law and Policy (2013)

C. Hesse, Publishing and Cultural Politics in Revolutionary Paris, 1789–1810 (1991)

T. Kupferman & M. Foner, eds., Universal Copyright Convention Analyzed (1955)

S. Ladas, The International Protection of Literary and Artistic Property (1938)

C. Masouye, Guide to the Berne Convention (WIPO 1978)

C. Masouye, Guide to the Rome Convention and to the Phonograms Convention (WIPO 1981)

N. Netanel (ed.), The Development Agenda: Global Intellectual Property and Developing Countries (2009)

J. Reinbothe, The WIPO Treaties, 1996: The WIPO Copyright Treaty and the WIPO Performance and Phonograms Treaty: Commentary and Legal Analysis (2002)

S. Ricketson & J. Ginsburg, International Copyright and Neighbouring Rights: The Berne Convention and Beyond (2d ed. 2006)

M. Ryan, Knowledge Diplomacy: Global Competition and the Politics of Intellectual Property (1998)

T. Solberg, The Present International Copyright Situation: Threats of Reprisal (1934)

T. Solberg, The United States and International Copyright (1929)

S. Stewart & H. Sandison, International Copyright and Neighbouring Rights (2d ed. 1989)

G. Tang, Copyright and the Public Interest in China (2011)

Antezana, The European Union Internet Copyright Directive as Even More Than It Envisions: Toward a Supra-EU Harmonization of Copyright Policy and Theory, 26 B.C. Int’l & Comp. L. Rev. 415 (2003)

Arami, Access Copyright and the Proposed Model Copyright License Agreement: A Shakespearean Tragedy, 24 I.P.J. 221 (2012)

Austin, The Berne Convention as a Canon of Construction: Moral Rights After Dastar, 61 N.Y.U. Ann. Surv. Am. L. 111 (2005)

Barbosa, International Copyright Law and Litigation: A Mechanism for Improvement, 11 Marq. Intell. Prop. L. Rev. 82 (2007)

Barbosa, Revisiting International Copyright Law, 8 Barry L. Rev. 43 (2007)

Bitton, Exploring European Union Copyright Policy Through the Lens of the Database Directive, 23 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 1411 (2008)

Boytha, Some Private International Law Aspects of the Protection of Authors’ Rights, 24 Copyright 399 (Oct. 1988)

Brenner-Beck, Do As I Say, Not As I Did (Economic Development of Less Developed Countries and the Protection of Intellectual Property), 11 UCLA Pac. Basin L.J. 84 (1992)

Bridy, ACTA and the Specter of Graduated Response, 26 Am. U. Int’l L. Rev. 559 (2011)

Burrell & Weatherall, Export Controversy? Reactions to the Copyright Provisions of the U.S.-Australia Free Trade Agreement: Lessons for U.S. Trade Policy, 2008 U. Ill. J.L. Tech. & Pol’y 259

Cate, Global Information Policymaking and Domestic Law, 1 Ind. J. Global Leg. Stud. 467 (1994)

Chinni, Droit D’Auteur Versus the Economics of Copyright: Implications for American Law of Accession to the Berne Convention, 14 W. New Eng. L. Rev. 145 (1992)

Choi, Development of Copyright Protection in Korea: Its History, Inherent Limits, and Suggested Solutions, 28 Brooklyn J. Int’l L. 643 (2003)

Cornish, The International Relations of Intellectual Property, 52 Cambridge L.J. 16 (1993)

Crawford, First Do No Harm: The Problem of Spyware, 20 Berkeley Tech. L. J. 1433 (2005)

Crawford, Internet Think, 5 J. Telecomm. & High Tech. L.467 (2007)

Crawford, Network Rules, 70 Law & Contemp. Probs. 512 (2007)

Crawford, Shortness of Vision: Regulatory Ambition in the Digital Age, 74 Fordham L. Rev. 695 (2005)

Crawford, The Internet and the Project of Communications Law, 55 UCLA L. Rev. 359 (2007)

Cronin, Genius in a Bottle: Perfume, Copyright and Human Perception, 56 J. Copyright Soc’y 427 (2009)

Das, Intellectual Property Dispute, GATT, WIPO: Of Playing by the Game Rules and Rules of the Game, 35 IDEA 149 (1994)

Davis, Some Realism About Indigenism, 11 Cardozo J. Int. & Comp. L. 815 (2003)

Deazley, Copyright and Parody: Taking Backward the Gowers Review?, 73 Mod. L. Rev. 785 (2010)

Dietz, The Harmonization of Copyright in the European Community, 16 IIC 379 (1985)

Dimmock & Punniyamoorthy, Fair Dealing: A User Right or a Defence, 22 Can. Intell. Prop. Rev. 11 (2005)

Dinwoodie, A New Copyright Order: Why National Courts Should Create Global Norms, 149 U. Pa. L. Rev. 469 (2000)

Dinwoodie, The Development and Incorporation of International Norms in the Formation of Copyright Law, 62 Ohio St. L.J. 733 (2001)

Dinwoodie, International Intellectual Property Litigation: A Vehicle for Resurgent Comparativist Thought?, 49 Am. J. Comp. L. 429 (2001)

Dittrich, The Practical Application of the Rome Convention, 26 Bull. Copyright Soc’y 287 (1979)

Doherty & Griffiths, The Harmonization of European Union Copyright Law for the Digital Age, 22 E.I.P.R. 17 (2000)

Doi, Availability of the “Fair Use” Defense under the Copyright Act of Japan: Legislative and Case Law Developments for Better Adapting It to the Digital/Network Environment, 57 J. Copyright Soc’y 631 (2010)

Dotan, Elkin-Koren, Fischman-Afori & Haramati-Alpern, Fair Use Best Practices for Higher Education Institutions: The Israeli Experience, 57 J. Copyright Soc’y 447 (2010)

Dox, Trade, Competition and Intellectual Property — TRIPS and Its Antitrust Counterparts, 29 Vand. J. Transnat’l L. 481 (1996)

Dreier, The Role of the ECJ for the Development of Copyright in the European Community, 54 J. Copyright Soc’y 183 (2007)

Dreier & von Lewinski, The European Community’s Activities in the Field of Copyright, 39 J. Copyright Soc’y 96 (1991)

Dreyfuss & Lowenfeld, Two Achievements of the Uruguay Round: Putting TRIPS and Dispute Settlement Together, 27 Va. J. Int’l L. 275 (1997)

Dutfield, TRIPS-Related Aspects of Traditional Knowledge, 33 Case West. Res. J. Int’l L. 233 (2001) Final Report of the Ad Hoc Working Group on U.S. Adherence to the Berne Convention, reprinted in 10 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 513 (1986)

Fitzpatrick, Copyright Imbalance: U.S. and Australian Responses to the WIPO Digital Copyright Treaty, 22 E.I.P.R. 214 (2000)

Garilov, The Legal Protection of Folklore, 20 Copyright 76 (1984)

Geiger, From Berne to National Law, Via the Copyright Directive: The Dangerous Mutations of the Three-Step Test, 29 E.I.P.R. 486 (2007)

Geller, A German Approach to Fair Use: Test Cases for TRIPs Critera for Copyright Limitations?, 57 J. Copyright Soc’y 553 (2010)

Geller, Can the GATT Incorporate Berne Whole?, 4 World Intell. Prop. Rep. 193 (1990)

Geller, Conflicts of Law in Cyberspace: Rethinking International Copyright, J. Copyright Soc’y 103 (1996)

Geller, Copyright Protection in the Berne Union: Analyzing the Issues, 5 Intell. Prop. J. 1 (1989)

Geller, Harmonizing Copyright-Contract Conflicts Analyses, 25 Copyright 49 (1989)

Geller, Legal Transplants in International Copyright: Some Problems of Method, 13 UCLA Pac. Basin L.J. 199 (1994)

Gervais, Spiritual But Not Intellectual?: The Protection of Sacred Intangible Traditional Knowledge, 11 Cardozo J. Int. & Comp. L. 467 (2003)

Gibbons & Wang, Striking the “Rights” Balance Among Private Incentives and Public Fair Uses in the United States and China, 7 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 488 (2008)

Ginsburg, Colors in Conflicts: Moral Rights and the Foreign Exploitation of Colorized U.S. Motion Pictures, 36 J. Copyright Soc’y 81 (1988)

Ginsburg, International Copyright: From a “Bundle” of National Copyright Laws to a Supranational Code?, 40 J. Copyright Soc’y 265 (2000)

Ginsburg, The Concept of Authorship in Comparative Copyright Law, 52 DePaul L. Rev. 1063 (2003)

Ginsburg & Kernochan, One Hundred and Two Years Later: The United States Adheres to the Berne Convention, 13 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 1 (1988)

Ginsburg & Sirinelli, Author, Creation and Adaptation in Private International Law and French Domestic Law: Reflections Based on the Huston Case (i), 150 Revue Internationale de Droit D’Auteur [R.I.D.A.] 2 (1991)

Goswami & Nandi, Naming the Unnamed: Intellectual Property Rights of Women Artists from India, 16 Am. U.J. Gender Soc. Pol’y & L. 257 (2008)

Graves, Globalization, Treaty Powers, and the Limits of the Intellectual Property Clause, 50 J. Copyright Soc’y 199 (2003)

Gutsche, Equitable Remuneration for Authors in Germany — How the German Copyright Act Secures Their Rewards, 50 J. Copyright Soc’y 257 (2003)

Halbert, The World Intellectual Property Organization: Past, Present and Future, 54 J. Copyright Soc’y 253 (2007)

Hamilton, The TRIPS Agreement: Imperialistic, Outdated, and Overprotective, 29 Vand. J. Transnat’l L. 613 (1996)

Handler & Rolph, “A Real Pea Souper”: The Panel Case and the Development of the Fair Dealing Defences to Copyright Infringement in Australia, 27 Melbourne U.L. Rev. 381 (2003)

D. Hansen, Protection of Traditional Knowledge: Trade Barriers and the Public Domain, 58 J. Copyright Soc’y 757 (2011)

Hayhurst, The Canadian Supreme Court on Copyright: CCH Canadian Ltd. v. Law Society of Upper Canada, 41 Can. Bus. L.J. 134 (2004)

He, Storm Brewing in the “Safe Harbor”: Defective Notification and Knowledge Imputed to Service Providers Under Chinese Law, 59 J. Copyright Soc’y 201 (2012)

Heald, Mowing the Playing Field: Addressing Information Distortion and Asymmetry in the TRIPS Game, 88 Minn. L. Rev. 249 (2003)

Helfer, Adjudicating Copyright Claims Under the TRIPs Agreement: The Case for a European Human Rights Analogy, 39 Harv. Int’l L.J. 357 (1998)

Huet & Ginsburg, Computer Programs in Europe: A Comparative Analysis of the 1991 EC Software Directive, 30 Colum. J. Transnat’l L. 327 (1992)

Hugenholtz, Harmonisation or Unification of European Union Copyright Law, 38 Monash U. L. Rev 4 (2012)

Hugenholtz, Why the Copyright Directive is Unimportant, and Possibly Invalid, 22 Eur. Intell. Prop. Rev. 499 (2000)

Illum, On Copyright Protection of Smell, Taste and Texture, 34 E.I.P.R. 704 (2012)

Jacobs, Work-for-Hire and the Moral Right Dilemma in the European Community: A U.S. Perspective, 16 B.C. Int’l & Comp. L. Rev. 29 (1993)

Jaszi, GATT or WIPO? New Ways in the International Protection of Intellectual Property (Symposium at Ringberg Castle, July 13–16, 1989) (F.-K. Beier & G. Schricker, eds., IIC Studies 1989)

Jaszi & Woodmansee, The Ethical Reaches of Authorship, 95 S. Atlantic 947 (1996)

Jehoram, The Nature of Neighboring Rights of Performing Artists, Phonogram Producers and Broadcasting Organizations, 15 Colum.-VLA J. L. & Arts 75 (1990)

Jehoram, Shall the Perfume Scent Decision of the Dutch Supreme Court Conquer the EU and Then the World or Will It Perish?, 54 J. Copyright Soc’y 571 (2007)

Jolliffe, Sartorio & Chenoweth, The Dawn of a New Era of Balance in Canadian Copyright Law, 22 Can. Intell. Prop. Rev. 17 (2005)

Judge, Join the Club: The Implicaitons of the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement’s Enforcement Measures for Canadian Copyright Law, 49 Alta. L. Rev. 677 (2012)

Kennedy, No Three Strikes for Ireland (Yet): EU Copyright Law and Individual Liability in Recent Internet File Sharing Litigation, 14 J. Internet L. 15 (2011)

Kerever, Copyright: The Achievements and Future Development of European Legal Culture, 26 Copyright 130 (Apr. 1990)

Klement, Protecting Television Show Formats Under Copyright Law: New Developments in Common Law and Civil Law Countries, 29 E.I.P.R. 52 (2007)

Lafuze & Stanford, An Overview of Section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1983: A Primer for Practice Before the International Trade Commission, 25 J. Marshall L. Rev. 159 (1992)

Leaffer, European Copyright Law: A Commentary, 58 J. Copyright Soc’y 737 (2011)

Leaffer, International Copyright from an American Perspective, 43 Ark. L. Rev. 373 (1990)

Leaffer, Protecting American Intellectual Property Abroad: Toward a New Multilateralism, 76 Iowa L. Rev. 273 (1991)

Lee, Measuring TRIPS Compliance and Defiance: The WTO Complaince Scorecard,” J. Intell. Prop. L. 401 (2011)

Lee, Brave New World: Issues and Implications of the New Fair Use Clause in the Korean Copyright Act, 63 J. Copyright Soc’y 535 (2016)

Liang, Beyond the Copyright Act: The Fair Use Doctrine Under Chinese Judicial Opinions, 56 J. Copyright Soc’y 695 (2009)

Lin, The U.S.-Taiwan Copyright Agreement: Cooperation or Coercion?, 11 UCLA Pac. Basin L.J. 155 (1992)

Lindner, Revival of Rights v. Protection of Acquired Rights: The Interpretation of Article 10(3) of the Duration Directive by the European Court of Justice in the Butterfly Case, 22 E.I.P.R. 133 (2000)

Lindsay, Protection of Compilations and Databases After IceTV: Authorship, Originality and the Transformation of Australian Copyright Law, 38 Monash U. L. Rev. 17 (2012)

Lipton, Copyright in the Digital Age: A Comparative Survey, 27 Rutgers Computer & Tech. L.J. 333 (2001)

Liu, Reform of China’s Copyright Legislation, 59 J. Copyright Soc’y 843 (2012)

Long, Copyright and the Uruguay Round Agreements: A New Era of Protection or an Illusory Promise?, 22 AIPLA Q.J. 531 (1994)

Long, “Globalization”: A Future Trend or a Satisfying Mirage?, 49 J. Copyright Soc’y 357 (2001)

Longdon & Lim, Copyright in High Technology and Haute Cuisine: Distinguishing Inspiration from Infringement, 35 E.I.P.R. 74 (2013)

Luder, The Next Ten Years in E.U. Copyright: Making Markets Work, 18 Fordham Intell. Prop. Media & Ent. L.J. 1 (2007)

Lupo, International Trade Commission Section 337 Proceedings and Their Applicability to Copyright Ownership, 32 J. Copyright Soc’y 193 (1985)

Makeen & Oron, The Right to Paternity under the Copyright Laws of Egypt and Israel, 33 E.I.P.R. 26 (2010)

McManis, Taking TRIPS on the Information Superhighway: International Intellectual Property Protection and Emerging Computer Technology, 41 Vill. L. Rev. 207 (1996)

Mehra, Copyright, Control, and Comics: Japanese Battles Over Downstream Limits on Content, 56 Rutgers L. Rev. 181 (2003)

Mizaras, Lithuanian Copyright: Historical and Modern Aspects and Trends of Development, 2007, 54 J. Copyright Soc’y 829 (2007)

Mouchet, Problems of the “Domaine Public Payant,” 8 Colum.-VLA J. L. & Arts 137 (1983)

Munzer & Raustiala, The Uneasy Case for Intellectual Property Rights in Traditional Knowledge, 27 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 37 (2009)

Naser & Muhaisen, Intellectual Property: An Islamic Perspective, 56 J. Copyright Soc’y 571 (2009)

Netanel, Asserting Copyright’s Democratic Principles in the Global Arena, 51 Vand. L. Rev. 217 (1998)

Netanel, The Next Round: The Impact of the WIPO Copyright Treaty on TRIPS Dispute Settlement, 37 Va. J. Int’l L. 441 (1997)

D. Nimmer, GATT’s Entertainment: Before and NAFTA, 15 Loy. L.A. Ent. L.J. 133 (1995)

D. Nimmer, A Tale of Two Treaties, 22 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 1 (1997)

D. Nimmer, Nation, Duration, Violation, Harmonization: An International Copyright Proposal for the United States, 55 Law & Contemp. Probs. 211 (1992)

A. Nordemann, Berne and Beyond: Understanding International Conventions Relating to Copyright Law, 59 J. Copyright Soc’y 263 (2012)

J. Nordemann, Internet Copyright Infringement: Remedies Against Intermediaries — The European Perspective on Host and Access Providers, 59 J. Copyright Soc’y 747 (2012)

J. Nordemann, The U.S. “Works-for-Hire” Doctrine before German Courts — Rejection and Reception, 53 J. Copyright Soc’y 603 (2006)

Ochoa, Protection for Works of Foreign Authors Under the 1909 Copyright Act, 26 Santa Clara Computer & High Tech. L.J. 289 (2010)

Okediji, Copyright and Public Welfare in Global Perspective, 7 Ind. J. Global Leg. Stud. 117 (1999)

Okediji, Knowledge Creation Systems on the International Stage: The Regulation of Creativity under the WIPO Internet Treaties, 77 Fordham L. Rev. 2379 (2009)

Okediji, TRIPS Dispute Settlement and the Sources of (International) Copyright Law, 49 J. Copyright Soc’y 585 (2001)

Onishi, Personal Avatar Identity Theft in Japan: The Role of the Japanese Copyright Law, 22 Ent. L. Rev. 17 (2011)

Owen, Who Safeguards the Public Interest in Copyright in Canada?, 59 J. Copyright Soc’y 803 (2012)

Patry, The United States and International Copyright Law: From Berne to Eldred, 40 Hous. L. Rev. 749 (2003)

Pelz, 2009, Global Warming Trend? The Creeping Indulgence of Fair Use in International Copyright Law, 17 Tex. Intell. Prop. L.J. 267 (2009)

Perlmutter, Future Directions in International Copyright, 16 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 369 (1998)

Perlmutter, Participation in the International Copyright System as a Means to Promote the Progress of Science and Useful Arts, 36 Loy. L.A. L. Rev. 323 (2002)

Port, A Case Against the ACTA, 33 Cardozo L. Rev. 1131 (2012)

Raskind, Protecting Computer Software in the European Economic Community: The Innovative New Directive, 18 Brooklyn J. Int’l L. 729 (1992)

Reichman, Enforcing the Enforcement Procedures of the TRIPS Agreement, 37 Va. J. Int’l L. 335 (1997)

Reichman, Intellectual Property in International Trade: Opportunities and Risks of a GATT Connection, 22 Vand. J. Transnat’l L. 747 (1989)

Reinbothe & Von Lewinski, The WIPO Treaties 1996: Ready to Come into Force, 24 E.I.P.R. 199 (2002)

Remington, The Ever-Whirling Cycle of Change: Copyright and Cyberspace, 3 N.C.J.L. & Tech. 213 (2002)

Rinaldo, The Scope of Copyright Protection in the United States Under Existing Inter-American Relations: Abrogation of the Need for U.S. Protection Under the Buenos Aires Convention by Reliance Upon the U.C.C., 22 Bull. Copyright Soc’y 417 (1975)

Ringer, The Role of the United States in International Copyright — Past, Present and Future, 65 Geo. L.J. 1065 (1968)

Ruiz, Lapena & Clark, The Protection of Traditional Knowledge in Peru: A Comparative Perspective, 3 Wash. U. Global L. Studies L. Rev. 755 (2004)

Sackville, Legal Protection of Indigenous Culture in Australia, 11 Cardozo J. Int. & Comp. L. 711 (2003)

Samuelson, The U.S. Digital Agenda at WIPO, 37 Va. J. Int’l L. 369 (1997)

Samuelson, Vinje & Cornish, Does Copyright Protection Under the EU Software Directive Extend to Computer Program Behaviour, Languages and Interfaces?, 34 E.I.P.R. 158 (2012)

San, Developing a Secondary Copyright Liability Regime in Malaysia: Insights from Anglo-American Experience, 2011 I. P. Q. 50 (2011).

Schwartz, Recent Developments in the Copyright Regimes of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, 38 J. Copyright Soc’y 123 (1991)

Schwartz, An Overview of the International Treatment of Exceptions, 57 J. Copyright Soc’y 473 (2010)

Scott, A Comparative View of Copyright as Cultural Property in Japan and the United States, 20 Temp. Int’l & Comp. L.J. 283 (2006)

Scott, A Protocol for Evaluating Changing Global Attitudes Toward Innovation and Intellectual Property Regimes, 32 U. Pa. J. Int’l Law 1165 (2011)

Scott, Spoliation, Cultural Property and Japan, 29 U. Pa. J. Int’l L. 803 (2008)

Scott, What do Jim Morrison, Kurt Cobain, Elvis Presley, and Utagawa Toyoharu Have in Common? Protecting Artistic Legacy in the United States and Japan: A Comparison of U.S. Legal Principles and Iemoto Seido of Japan, 26 Conn. J. Int’l L.161 (2010)

Senftleben, Bridging the Differences Between Copyright’s Legal Traditions: The Emerging EC Fair Use Doctrine, 57 J. Copyright Soc’y 521 (2010)

Silva, Copyright Convergence in the Andean Community of Nations, 20 Tex. Intell. Prop. L.J. 429 (2012)

Sims, Appellations of Piracy: Fair Dealing’s Prehistory, 2011 I. P. Q. 3 (2011)

Simone, Protection of American Copyrights in Books on Taiwan, 35 J. Copyright Soc’y 115 (1988)

Sobel, The Framework of International Copyright, 8 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 1 (1989)

Solberg, The International Copyright Union, 36 Yale L.J. 68 (1926)

Song, A Comparative Copyright Analysis of ISP Liability in China versus the United States and Europe, 27 Computer & Internet L. 7 (2010)

Song, Reevaluating Fair Use in China: A Comparative Copyright Analysis of Chinese Fair Use Legislation, the U.S. Fair Use Doctrine, and the European Fair Dealing Model, 51 IDEA 453 (2011)

Sterling, Space Copyright Law: The New Dimension: A Preliminary Survey and Proposals, 54 J. Copyright Soc’y 345 (2007)

Story, Burn Berne: Why the Leading International Copyright Convention Must Be Repealed, 40 Hous. L. Rev. 763 (2003)

Symposium, Fundamentals of International Copyright: The Impact of Berne, 8 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 1 (1989)

Symposium, Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property, 22 Vand. J. Transnat’l L. 689 (1989)

Tabatabai, A Tale of Two Countries: Canada’s Response to the Peer-to-Peer Crisis and What it Means for the United States, 73 Fordham L. Rev. 2321 (2005)

Travis, Opting Out of the Interent in the United States and the European Union: Copyright, Safe Harbors, and International Law, 84 Notre Dame L. Rev. 331 (2008)

Turkewitz, Authors’ Rights Are Dead, 38 J. Copyright Soc’y 41 (1990)

U.S. Copyright Office, Circular 38a: International Copyright Relations of the United States (continually updated)

Von Lewinski, Copyright in the European Communities: The Proposed Harmonization Measures, 28 Brooklyn J. Int’l L. 703 (1992)

Von Lewinski, International Copyright Over the Last 50 Years — A Foreign Perspective, 50 J. Copyright Soc’y 581 (2003)

Von Lewinski, The Protection of Folklore, 11 Cardozo J. Int’l & Comp. L. 747 (2003)

Westkamp, Code, Copying and Competition: The Subversive Force of Para-Copyright and the Need for an Unfair Competition-Based Reassessment of DRM Law After Infopaq, 58 J. Copyright Soc’y 727 (2011)

Westkamp, Transient Copyright and Public Communication: The Creeping Evolution of Use and Access Rights in European Copyright Law, 36 Geo. Wash. Int’l L. Rev. 1057 (2004)

Yu, Enforcement, Enforcement, What Enforcement?, 52 IDEA 239 (2012)

Yu, Four Common Misconceptions about Copyright Piracy, 26 L.A. Int. & Comp. L. Rev. 127 (2003)

Yu, Intellectual Property and Asian Values, 16 Marq. Intell. Prop. L. Rev. 329 (2012)

Yu, Of ACTA/TPP and SOPA/PIPA, Drake University Law School Occasional Papers in Intellectual Property Law (2012)

Yu, The Rise and Decline of the Intellectual Property Powers, 35 Campbell L. Rev. 525 (2012)

Yu, Six Secret (and Now Open) Fears about ACTA, 64 SMU L. Rev. 975 (2011)

Yu, The Copyright Divide, 25 Cardozo L. Rev. 705 (2003)

Yu, The Harmonization Game: What Basketball Can Teach About Intellectual Property and International Trade, 26 Fordham Int. L.J. 218 (2003)

Yu, The Middle Kingdom and the Intellectual Property World, 13 Or. Rev. Int’l L. 209 (2011)

Zemer, Copyright Departures: The Fall of the Last Imperial Dominion and the Case of Fair Use, 60 DePaul L. Rev. 1051 (2011)

Zheng & Pendleton, A Response to United States Government Criticisms of the Chinese Copyright Law, 7 E.I.P.R. 257 (1991)

Copyright and the Digital Challenge

J. Band & M. Katoh, Interfaces on Trial 2.0 (2011)

W. Fisher, Promises to Keep: Technology, Law, and the Future of Entertainment (2004)

R. Giblin: Code Wars: 10 Years of P2P Litigation (2011)

T. Gillespie, Wired Shut: Copyright and the Shape of Digital Culture (2007)

J. Karaganis (ed.), Media Piracy in Emerging economies (2011)

D. Katsh, Law in a Digital World (1995)

G. Lastowka, Virtual Justice: The New Laws of Online Worlds (2010)

J. Litman, Digital Copyright: Protecting Intellectual Property on the Internet (2001)

H. Perritt, Digital Communications Law (2011)

M. Remington, Napster and the Digital Age: The Future of Copyright Law (2001)

J. Tehranian, Infringement Nation: Copyright 2.0 and You (2011)

Bartow, Copyright Law and Pornography, 91 Or. L. Rev. 1 (2012)

Bartow, Electrifying Copyright Norms and Making Cyberspace More Like a Book, 48 Vill. L. Rev. 13 (2003)

Bartow, Libraries in a Digital and Aggressively Copyrighted World: Retaining Patron Access through Changing Technologies, 62 Ohio St. L.J. 821 (2001)

Bartow, Our Data, Ourselves: Privacy, Propertization, and Gender, 34 U.S.F. L. Rev. 633 (2000)

Bartow, Pornography, Coercion, and Copyright Law, 10 Vand. J. Ent. & Tech. L. 799 (2008)

Beard, Clones, Bones and Twilight Zones: Protecting the Digital Persona of the Quick, the Dead and the Imaginary, 16 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 1165 (2001)

T. Bell, The Specter of Copyism v. Blockheaded Authors: How User-Generated Content Affects Copyright Policy, 10 Vand. J. Ent. & Tech. L. 841 (2008)

Boyden, Can a Computer Intercept Your E-mail?, 34 Cardozo L. Rev. 669 (2012)

Boyden, Oversharing: Facebook Discovery and the Unbearable Sameness of Internet Law, 65 Ark. L. Rev. 39 (2012)

Boyle, Intellectual Property Policy Online: A Young Person’s Guide, 10 Harv. J. L. & Tech. 47 (1996)

Bridy, Graduated Response and the Turn to Private Ordering in Online Copyright Enforcement, 89 Or. L. Rev. 81 (2010)

Bridy, Is Online Copyright Enforcement Scalable?, 13 Vand. J. Ent. & Tech. L. 695 (2011)

Burk, Muddy Rules for Cyberspace, 21 Cardozo L. Rev. 121 (1999)

Burk, The Mereology of Digital Copyright, 18 Fordham Intell. Prop. Media & Ent. L.J. 711 (2008)

Burk, The Trouble With Trespass, 4 J. Small & Emerging Bus. L. 27 (2000)

Cate, The First Amendment and the National Information Infrastructure, 30 Wake Forest L. Rev 1 (1995)

Cate, The Technological Transformation of Copyright Law, 81 Iowa L. Rev. 1395 (1996)

Cavazos & Miles, Copyright on the WWW: Linking and Liability, 4 Rich. J.L. & Tech. 3 (1997)

J. Cohen, A Right to Read Anonymously: A Closer Look at “Copyright Management” in Cyberspace, 28 Conn. L. Rev. 981 (1996)

Craig, The Development of Internet Education and the Role of Copyright Law, 40 J. Copyright Soc’y 75 (2000)

Dallon, The Problem With Congress and Copyright Law: Forgetting the Past and Ignoring the Public Interest, 44 Santa Clara L. Rev. 365 (2004)

Durham, Copyright and Information Theory: Toward An Alternative Model of “Authorship,” 2004 B.Y.U. L. Rev. 69

Elkin-Koren, Cyberlaw and Social Change: A Democratic Approach to Copyright Law in Cyberspace, 14 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 215 (1996)

Elkin-Koren, The Changing Nature of Books and “The Uneasy Case for Copyright,” 79 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 1712 (2011)

Feigin, Architecture of Consent: Internet Protocols and Their Legal Implications, 56 Stan. L. Rev. 901 (2004)

Field, Copyright, Technology and Time: Perspectives on “Interactive” as a Term of Art in Copyright Law, 50 J. Copyright Soc’y 59 (2003)

Gailey, Who Owns Digital Rights? Examining the Scope of Copyright Protection for Electronically Distributed Works, 18 Comm. & The Law 3 (1996)

Gard, Copyright and Social Media: A Preliminary Case Study of Pinterest, 31 Miss. C. L. Rev. 249 (2012)

Garon, Media and Monopoly in the Information Age: Slowing the Convergence at the Marketplace of Ideas, 17 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 491 (1999)

Gerhardt, Plagiarism in Cyberspace: Learning the Rules of Recycling Content with a View Towards Nurturing Academic Trust in an Electronic World, 12 Rich. J.L. & Tech. 10 (2006)

Ginsburg, Putting Cars on the “Information Superhighway”: Authors, Exploiters & Copyright in Cyberspace, 95 Colum. L. Rev. 1466 (1995)

Halpern, Copyright Law in the Digital Age: Malum in Se and Malum Prohibitum, 4 Marq. Intell. Prop. L. Rev. 1 (2000)

Halpern, The Digital Threat to the Normative Role of Copyright Law, 62 Ohio St. L.J. 569 (2001)

Hardy, Not So Different: Tangible, Intangible, Digital, and Analog Works and Their Comparison for Copyright Purposes, 26 U. Dayton L. Rev. 211 (2001)

Hardy, Property (and Copyright) in Cyberspace, 1996 U. Chi. Legal F. 217

Hardy, The Internet and the Law: Copyright and “New-Use” Technologies, 23 Nova L. Rev. 657 (1999)

Hardy, The Proper Legal Regime for “Cyberspace”, 55 U. Pitt. L. Rev. 993 (1994)

Helman, Fair Trade Copyright, 36 Colum. J.L. & Arts 157 (2013)

Hilty, Five Lessons About Copyright in the Information Society: Reaction of the Scientific Community to Over-Protection and What Policy Makers Should Learn, 53 J. Copyright Soc’y 103 (2005)

Jamar, Crafting Copyright Law to Encourage and Protect User-Generated Content in the Internet Social Networking Context, 19 Widener L.J. 843 (2010)

Jensen, The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same: Copyright, Digital Technology, and Social Norms, 56 Stan. L. Rev. 531 (2003)

Johnson & Post, Law and Borders: The Rise of the Law in Cyberspace, 48 Stan. L. Rev. 1367 (1996)

Kaplan, Copyright in the Digital Age, 49 J. Copyright Soc’y 1 (2001)

Karjala, Federal Preemption of Shrinkwrap and On-Line Licenses, 22 U. Dayton L. Rev. 511 (1997)

Karnniel & Bates, Copyright in Second Life, 20 Alb. L.J. Sci. & Tech. 433 (2010)

Katsh & Rifkin, The New Media and a New Model of Conflict Resolution: Copying, Copyright, and Creating, 6 Notre Dame J.L., Ethics & Pub. Pol’y 49 (1992)

Ku, Creative Destruction of Copyright: Napster and the New Economics of Digital Technology, 69 U. Chi. L. Rev. 263 (2002)

Kurtz, Symposium: Copyright and the Internet — World Without Borders, 43 Wayne L. Rev. 117 (1996)

Lastowka, User-Generated Content and Virtual Worlds, 10 Vand. J. Ent. & Tech. L. 893 (2008)

Leaffer, Protecting Authors’ Rights in a Digital Age, 27 U. Tol. L. Rev. 1 (1996)

Lee, Copyright, Death, and Taxes, 47 Wake Forest L. Rev. 1 (2012)

Lee, Culturally-Based Copyright Systems?: The U.S. and Korea in Conflict, 79 Wash. U.L.Q. 1103 (2001)

Lee, Developing Copyright Practices for User-Generated Content, 13 J. Internet L. 1 (2009)

Lee, Warming Up to User-Generated Content, 2008 U. Ill. L. Rev. 1459

M. Lemley, Dealing With Overlapping Copyrights on the Internet, 22 U. Dayton L. Rev. 547 (1997)

M. Lemley, Place and Cyberspace, 91 Cal. L. Rev. 521 (2003)

Litman, Antibiotic Resistance, 30 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 53 (2012)

Litman, Reforming Information Law in Copyright’s Image, 22 Dayton L. Rev. 587 (1997)

Litman, Revising Copyright Law for the Information Age, 75 Or. L. Rev. 19 (1996)

Liu, Owning Digital Copies: Copyright Law and the Incidents of Copy Ownership, 42 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 1245 (2001)

Loundy, Revising the Copyright Law for Electronic Publishing, 14 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 1 (1995)

McCoy, Cybertheft: Will Copyright Law Prevent Digital Tyranny on the Superhighway?, 30 Wake Forest L. Rev. 169 (1995)

Menell, Envisioning Copyright Law’s Digital Future, 46 N.Y.L. Sch. L. Rev. 63 (2002)

Menell, Knowledge Accessibility and Preservation Policy for the Digital Age, 44 Hous. L. Rev. 1013 (2007)

Menell, The Challenges of Reforming Intellectual Property Protection for Computer Software, 94 Colum. L. Rev. 2644 (1994)

Meurer, Price Discrimination, Personal Use and Piracy: Copyright Protection for Digital Works, 45 Buff. L. Rev. 845 (1997)

Montagnani, A New Interface Between Copyright Law and Technology: How User- Generated Content Will Shape the Future of Online Distribution, 26 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 719 (2009)

Mtima, Protecting and Licensing Software: Copyright and Common Law Contract Considerations, 22 Computer & Internet L. 13 (2005)

Mtima & Jamar, Fulfilling the Copyright Social Justice Promise: Digititzing Textual Information, 29 Computer & Internet L. 16 (2012)

Myers, Defamation and the Quiescent Anarchy of the Internet: A Case Study of Cyber Targeting (Defamation Discussion Forum), 110 Penn St. L. Rev. 667 (2006)

R. Nimmer & Krauthaus, Copyright on the Information Superhighway: Requiem for a Middleweight, 6 Stan. L. & Pol’y Rev. 25 (1994)

R. Nimmer, Information Wars and the Challenges of Content Protections in Digital Contexts, 13 Vand. J. Ent. & Tech. L. 825 (2011)

Ohm, The Myth of the Super-User: Fear, Risk, and Harm Online, 41 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 1327 (2009)

Patel, ‘Authors v. Internet Archives’: The Copyright Infringement Battle Over Web Pages, 89 J. Pat. & Trademark Off. Soc’y 410 (2007)

Patterson, The DMCA: A Modern Version of the Licensing Act of 1662, 10 J. Intell. Prop. L. 33 (2002)

Perlmutter, Convergence and the Future of Copyright, 24 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 163 (2001)

Pessach, [Networked] Memory Institutions: Social Remembering, Privatization and Its Discontents, 26 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 71 (2008)

Polonsky, You Can’t Go Home Again: The Righthaven Cases and Copyright Trolling on the Internet, 36 Colum. J.L. & Arts 71 (2012)

Post, Symposium: Napster & Beyond: Protecting Copyright in the Digital Millennium — His Napster’s Voice, 20 Temp. Envtl. L. & Tech. J. 35 (2001)

Radin, Property Evolving in Cyberspace, 15 J. L. & Com. 509 (1996)

Reichman, Electronic Information Tools: The Outer Edge of World Intellectual Property Law, 17 U. Dayton L. Rev. 853 (1992)

Reidenberg, The Rule of Intellectual Property Law in the Internet Economy, 44 Hous. L. Rev. 1073 (2007)

Rice, Digital Information as Property and Product: U.C.C. Article 2B, 22 U. Dayton L. Rev. 621 (1997)

Samuelson, Digital Media and the Changing Face of Intellectual Property Law, 16 Rutgers Computer & Tech. L.J. 323 (1990)

Samuelson, Privacy As Intellectual Property?, 52 Stan. L. Rev. 1125 (2000)

Samuelson, Toward a “New Deal” for Copyright in the Information Age, 100 Mich. L. Rev. 1488 (2002)

Shipley, Liability Issues Facing Online Businesses, 36-WTR Ark. Law 20 (2001)

Sieber, Digital Media: The Constitutionality of the DMCA Explored: Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Corley & United States v. Elcom Ltd., 18 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 7 (2003)

Waelde & MacQueen, From Entertainment to Education: The Scope of Copyright, Intell. Prop. Q. 259 (Summer 2004)

Wagner, On Software Regulation, 78 S. Cal. L. Rev. 457 (2005)

Wood, The Darknet: A Digital Copyright Revolution, 16 Rich. J.L. & Info. Tech. 95 (2010)

Yu, Digital Copyright and Confuzzling Rhetoric, 13 Vand. J. Ent. & Tech. L. 881 (2011)

Yu, The Escalating Copyright Wars, 32 Hofstra L. Rev. 907 (2004)

Yu, The Graduated Response, 62 Fla. L. Rev. 1373 (2010)

Zimmerman, Copyright in Cyberspace: Don’t Throw Out the Public Interest With the Bathwater, 1994 Annual Survey of American Law 403

Thinking and Talking About Copyright Law

M. Biagioli, P. Jaszi & M. Woodmansee, Making and Unmaking Intellectual Property: Creative Production in Legal and Cultural Perspective (2011)

Y. Benkler, The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom (2006)

S. Biegel, Beyond Our Control? Confronting the Limits of Our Legal System in the Age of Cyberspace (2001)

M. Boldrin & D. Levine, Against Intellectual Property (2008)

J. Boyle, Shamans, Software & Spleens: Law and the Construction of the Information Society (1996)

J. Boyle, The Public Domain: Enclosing the Commons of the Mind (2008)

C. Craig, Copyright, Communication and Culture: Towards a Relational Theory of Copyright Law (2011)

C. Doctorow, Content: Selected Essays on Technology, Creativity, Copyright and the Future of the Future (2008)

A. Friedman, The Law of High Technology Innovation (1991)

H. Hansen, U.S. Intellectual Property Law and Policy (2006)

M. Jussawalla, The Economics of Intellectual Property in A World Without Frontiers: A Study of Computer Software (1992)

B. Kaplan, An Unhurried View of Copyright (1967)

D. Lange & H.J. Powell, No Law: Intellectual Property in the Image of an Absolute First Amendment (2008)

L. Lessig, Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace (1999)

L. Lessig, Free Culture: How Big Media Uses Technology and the Law to Lock Down Culture and Control Creativity (2004)

L. Lessig, Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy (2008)

L. Lessig, The Future of Ideas: The Fate of the Commons in a Connected World (2001)

C.B. MacPherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism (1962)

M. Mason, The Pirate’s Dilemma: How Youth Culture is Reinventing Capitalism (2008)

A. Moore, Intellectual Property: Moral, Legal & International Dilemmas (1997)

A. Ng, Copyright Law and the Progress of Science and the Useful Arts (2011)

D. Nimmer, Copyright: Sacred Text, Technology, and the DMCA (2003)

W. Patry, How to Fix Copyright (2011)

W. Patry, Moral Panics and the Copyright Wars (2009)

L. R. Patterson & S.W. Lindberg, The Nature of Copyright: A Law of Users’ Rights (1991)

A. Plant, The New Commerce in Ideas and Intellectual Property (1953)

S. Stewart, Crimes of Writing: Problems in the Containment of Representation (1991)

R. Towse, Creativity, Incentive and Reward: An Economic Analysis of Copyright and Culture in the Information Age (2001)

M. Woodmansee, The Author, the Arts, and the Market: Rereading the History of Aesthetics (1993)

M. Woodmansee & P. Jaszi (eds.), The Construction of Authorship: Textual Appropriation in Law and Literature (1994)

P. Yu, Intellectual Property and Information Wealth: Issues and Practices in the Digital Age (2007)

E. Zohar, Access-right: The Future of Digital Copyright Law (2011)

Afori, Human Rights and Copyright: The Introduction of Natural Law Considerations Into American Copyright Law, 14 Fordham Intell. Prop. Media & Ent. L.J. 497 (2004)

Aoki, Balancing Act: Reflections on Justice O’Connor’s Intellectual Property Jurisprudence, 44 Hous. L. Rev. 965 (2007)

Balganesh, Foreseeability and Copyright Incentives, 122 Harv. L. Rev. 1569 (2009)

Balganesh, The Obligatory Structure of Copyright, 125 Harv. L. Rev. 1664 (2012)

Baker, First Amendment Limits on Copyright, 55 Vand. L. Rev. 891 (2002)

Bar-Gill & Parchomovsky, A Marketplace for Ideas?, 84 Tex. L. R. 395 (2005)

Barlow, The Economy of Ideas, 2.03 Wired 84 (Mar. 1994)

Bartow, Fair Use and the Fairer Sex: Gender, Feminism, and Copyright Law, 14 Am U. J. Gender Soc. Pol’y & L. 551 (2006)

Bartow, The Hegemony of the Copyright Treatise, 73 U. Cin. L. Rev. 581 (2004)

Bauer, Refusals to Deal with Competitors by Owners of Patents and Copyrights: Reflections on the Image Technical and Xerox Decisions, 55 DePaul L. Rev. 1211 (2006)

A. Bell & Parchomovsky, The Case for Imperfect Enforcement of Property Rights, 160 U. Pa. L. Rev. 1927 (2012)

A. Bell & Parchomovsky, The Evolution of Private and Open Access Property, 10 Theoretical Inq. L. 77 (2009)

T. Bell, Author’s Welfare: Copyright as a Statutory Mechanism for Redistributing Rights, 69 Brooklyn L. Rev. 229 (2003)

T. Bell, Copyright as Intellectual Privilege, 58 Syracuse L. Rev. 523 (2008)

T. Bell, Escape from Copyright: Market Success vs. Statutory Failure in the Protection of Expressive Works, 69 U. Cin. L. Rev. 741 (2001)

T. Bell, Prediction Markets for Promoting the Progress of Science and the Useful Arts, 14 Geo. Mason L. Rev. 37 (2006)

T. Bell, “Property” in the Constitution: The View from the Third Amendment, 20 Wm. & Mary Bill Rights J. 1243 (2012)

Benkler, Free as the Air to Common Use: First Amendment Constraints on Enclosure of the Public Domain, 74 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 354 (1999)

Benkler, Siren Songs and Amish Children: Autonomy, Information, and Law, 76 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 23 (2001)

Benkler, The Public Domain: Through the Looking Glass: Alice and the Constitutional Foundations of the Public Domain, 66 Law & Contemp. Prob. 173 (2003)

Besen & Kirby, Private Copying, Appropriability and Optimal Copying Royalties, 32 J. Law & Econ. 255 (1989)

Besen & Raskind, An Introduction to the Law and Economics of Intellectual Property, 5 J. Econ. Persp. 3 (1991)

Birnhack, Copyright Law and Free Speech After Eldred v. Ashcroft, 76 S. Cal. L. Rev. 1275 (2003)

Birnhack, The Copyright Law and Free Speech Affair: Making-Up and Breaking-Up, 43 IDEA 233 (2003)

Bohannan, Reclaiming Copyright, 23 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 567 (2006)

Borghi, Copyright and Truth, 12 Theoretical Inquiries in L. 1 (2011)

Boyle, Cruel, Mean, or Lavish? Economic Analysis, Price Discrimination and Digital Intellectual Property, 53 Vand. L. Rev. 2007 (2000)

Boyle, A Theory of Law and Information: Copyright, Spleens, Blackmail, and Insider Trading, 80 Cal. L. Rev. 1413 (1992)

Boyle, The Second Enclosure Movement and the Construction of the Public Domain, 33. Law & Contemp. Probs. 33 (2003)

Boytha, The Justification of the Protection of Authors’ Rights as Reflected in Their Historical Development, 151 Revue Internationale de Droit D’Auteur [R.I.D.A.] 53 (1992)

Boytha, Whose Right is Copyright?, 6/7 GRUR Int’l 379 (1983)

Breyer, The Uneasy Case for Copyright: A Study in Copyright of Books, Photocopies and Computer Programs, 84 Harv. L. Rev. 281 (1970)

Breyer, ‘The Uneasy Case for Copyright”: A Look Back across Four Decades, 79 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 1635 (2011)

Breyer, Copyright: A Rejoinder, 20 UCLA L. Rev. 75 (1972)

Buccafusco & Fagundes, The Moral Psychology of Copyright Infringement, 100 Minn. L. Rev. 2433 (2016)

Burk, Copyright and Feminism in Digital Media, 14 Am U. J. Gender Soc. Pol’y & L. 519 (2006)

Burk, Expression, Selection, Abstraction: Copyright’s Golden Braid, 55 Syracuse L. Rev. 593 (2005)

Burk, Intellectual Property and the Firm, 71 U. Chi. L. Rev. 3 (2004)

Burk, Method and Madness in Copyright Law, 2007 Utah L. Rev. 587

Cameron & Tomkowicz, Competition Policy and Canada’s New Breed of ‘Copyright’ Law, 52 McGill L.J. 291 (2007)

Carrier, Cabining Intellectual Property Through a Property Paradigm, 54 Duke L.J. 1 (2004)

Carrier, Copyright and Innovation: The Untold Story, 2012 Wis. L. Rev. 891

Carroll, One Size Does Not Fit All: A Framework for Tailoring Intellectual Property Rights, 70 Ohio St. L.J. 1369 (2009)

Chafee, Reflections on the Law of Copyright, 45 Colum. L. Rev. 503, 719 (1945)

Chon, The Romantic Collective Author, 14 Vand. J. Ent. & Tech. L. 829 (2012)

Clark, Intangibles, Appropriations, and Intellectual Property Law: The Problem(s) with Copyright for Native American Oral Traditions, 38 Stud. L. Pol. & Soc’y 173 (2005)

J. Cohen, Copyright as Property in the Post-Industrial Economy: A Research Agenda, 2011 Wis. L. Rev. 141

J. Cohen, The Law and Economics of Intellectual Property Rights: Copyright and the Perfect Curve, 53 Vand. L. Rev. 1799 (2000)

J. Cohen, The Place of the User in Copyright Law, 74 Fordham L. Rev. 347 (2005)

Coombe, The Properties and the Politics of Possessing Identity: Native Claims in the Cultural Appropriation Controversy, 6 Can. J. L. & Juris. 249 (1993)

Craig, Reconstructing The Author-Self: Some Feminist Lessons for Copyright Law, 15 Am. U.J. Gender Soc. Pol’y & L. 207 (2007)

Crews, Looking Ahead and Shaping the Future: Provoking Change in Copyright Law, 49 J. Copyright Soc’y 549 (2001)

Dallon, The Problem with Congress and Copyright Law: Forgetting the Past and Ignoring the Public Interest, 44 Santa Clara L. Rev. 365 (2004)

DiCola & Sag, An Information-Gathering Approach to Copyright Policy, 34 Cardozo L. Rev. 173 (2012)

Dietz, Copyright in the Modern Technological World: A Mere Industrial Property Right?, 39 J. Copyright Soc’y 83 (1991)

Dinwoodie, Copyright Lawmaking Authority: An (Inter)Nationalist Perspective on the Treaty Clause, 30 Colum. J.L. & Arts 355 (2007)

Drassinower, A Note on Incentives, Rights and the Public Domain in Copyright Law, 86 Notre Dame L. Rev. 1869

Driedman, Standards as Intellectual Property: An Economic Approach, 19 U. Dayton L. Rev. 1109 (1994)

Fagundes, Crystals in the Public Domain, 50 B.C. L. Rev. 139 (2009)

Fagundes, Property Rhetoric and the Public Domain, 94 Minn. L. Rev. 652 (2010)

Fagundes, Talk Derby to Me: Emergent Property Norms Governing Roller Derby Pseudonyms, 90 Tex. L. Rev. 1093 (2012)

Frischmann, An Economic Theory of Infrastructure and Commons Management, 89 Minn. L. Rev. 917 (2005)

Frischmann & McKenna, Intergenerational Progress, 2011 Wis. L. Rev. 124

Fromer, A Psychology of Intellectual Property, 104 Nw. L. Rev. 1441 (2010)

Fromer, Expressive Incentives in Intellectual Property, 98 Va. L. Rev. 1745 (2012)

Fromer, The Intellectual Property Clause’s External Limitations, 61 Duke LJ. 1329 (2012)

Garfield, The Case for First Amendment Limits on Copyright Law, 35 Hofstra L. Rev. 1169 (2007)

Garon, Normative Copyright: A Conceptual Framework for Copyright Philosophy and Ethics, 88 Cornell L. Rev. 1278 (2003)

Geller, Beyond the Copyright Crisis: Principles for Change, 55 J. Copyright Soc’y 165 (2008)

Geist, All Rights Reserved?: Cultural Monopoly and the Troubles with Copyright, 10 Marq. Intell. Prop. L. Rev. 411 (2006)

Ghosh, Decoding and Recoding Natural Monopoly, Deregulation, and Intellectual Property, 2008 U. Ill. L. Rev. 1125

Ghosh, Informing and Reforming the Marketplace of Ideas: The Public-Private Model for Data Production and the First Amendment, 2012 Utah L. R. 653

Ghosh, The Fable of the Commons: Exclusivity and the Construction of Intellectual Property Markets, 40. U.C. Davis L. Rev. 855 (2007)

Ghosh, The Merits of Ownership, or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Intellectual Property: Review Essay of Lawrence Lessig, the Future of Ideas, and Siva Vaidhyanathan, Copyrights and Copywrongs, 15 Harv. J.L. & Tech. 453 (2002)

Ginsburg, Authors and Users in Copyright, 45 J. Copyright Soc’y 1 (1997)

Ginsburg, Creation and Commercial Value: Copyright Protection for Works of Information, 90 Colum. L. Rev. 1865 (1990)

Ginsburg, How Copyright Got a Bad Name For Itself, 26 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 61 (2002)

Goldstein, Copyright, 38 J. Copyright Soc’y (1991)

Goldstein, Copyright and Its Substitutes, 1997 Wis. L. Rev. 865

Goldstein, Copyright on a Clean Slate, 48 Hous. L. Rev. 691 (2012)

Goodman, Media Policy and Free Speech: The First Amendment at War with Itself, 35 Hofstra L. Rev. 1211 (2007)

Gordon, A Property Right in Self-Expression: Equality and Individualism in the Natural Law of Intellectual Property, 102 Yale L.J. 1533 (1993)

Gordon, An Inquiry into the Merits of Copyright: The Challenges of Consistency, Consent, and Encouragement Theory, 41 Stan. L. Rev. 1343 (1989)

Gordon, Assertive Modesty: An Economics of Intangibles, 94 Colum. L. Rev. 2579 (1994)

Gordon, Asymetric Market Failure and Prisoner’s Dilemma in Intellectual Property, 17 U. Dayton L. Rev. 853 (1992)

Gordon, Copyright as Tort Law’s Mirror Image: “Harms,” “Benefits,” and the Uses and Limits of Analogy, 34 McGeorge L. Rev. 533 (2003)

Gordon, On Owning Information: Intellectual Property Law and the Restitutionary Impulse, 78 Va. L. Rev. 149 (1992)

Gordon, Render Copyright Unto Caesar: On Taking Incentives Seriously, 71 U. Chi. L. Rev. 75 (2004)

Graves, Private Rights, Public Uses, and the Future of the Copyright Clause, 80 Neb. L. Rev. 64 (2001)

Greene, Copyright, Culture & Black Music: A Legacy of Unequal Protection, 21 Hastings Comm. & Ent. L.J. 339 (1999)

Greene, ‘Copynorms,’ Black Cultural Production, and the Debate Over African- American Reparation, 25 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 1179 (2008)

Grimmelmann, The Ethical Visions of Copyright, 77 Fordham L. Rev. 2005 (2009)

Halpern, Copyright Law in the Digital Age: Malum In Se and Malum Prohibitum, 4 Marq. Intell. Prop. L. Rev. 1 (2000)

Hamilton, Appropriation Art & the Imminent Decline in Authorial Control Over Copyrighted Works, 42 J. Copyright Soc’y 93 (1994)

Hamilton, Art and the Marketplace of Expression, 17 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 167 (1999)

Hamilton, The Jurisprudence of Information Flow: How the Constitution Constructs the Pathways of Information, 25 Cardozo L. Rev. 267 (2003)

Hardy, The Ancient Doctrine of Trespass to Web Sites, 1996 J. Online L., Art. 7

Harmon, Law, Art, and the Killing Jar, 79 Iowa L. Rev. 367 (1994)

Harrison, A Positive Externalities Approach to Copyright Law: Theory and Application, 13 J. Intell. Prop. L. 1 (2005)

Heald, Property Rights and the Efficient Exploitation of Copyrighted Works: An Empirical Analysis of Public Domain and Copyrighted Fiction Bestsellers, 92 Minn. L. Rev. 1031 (2008)

Heald, Reviving the Rhetoric of the Public Interest: Choir Directors, Copy Machines, and New Arrangements of Public Domain Music, 46 Duke L.J. 241 (1996)

Hettinger, Justifying Intellectual Property, 18 Phil. & Pub. Aff. 31 (1989)

Hughes, A Short History of “Intellecutal Property” in Relation to Copyright, 33 Cardozo L. Rev. 1293 (2012)

Hughes, The Philosophy of Intellectual Property, 77 Geo. L.J. 287 (1988)

Hughes, “Recoding” Intellectual Property and Overlooked Audience Interests, 77 Tex. L. Rev. 923 (1999)

Hurt & Schuchmàn, The Economic Rationale of Copyright, 56 Am. Econ. Rev. 42 (1966)

Jamar & Mtima, The Centrality of Social Justice for an Academic Intellectual Property Institute, 34 Colum. J.L. & Arts 591 (2011)

Jaszi, Goodbye to All That — A Reluctant (and Perhaps Premature) Adieu to a Constitutionally-Grounded Discourse of Public Interest in Copyright Law, 29 Vand. J. Transnat’l L. 595 (1996)

Jaszi, On the Author Effect: Contemporary Copyright and Collective Creativity, 10 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 293 (1992)

Johnson, The Economics of Copying, 93 J. Pol. Econ. 158 (1985)

Kasunic, Preserving the Traditional Contours of Copyright, 30 Colum. J.L. & Arts 397 (2007)

Katyal, Performance, Property and the Slashing of Gender in Fan Fiction, 14 Am. U. J. Gender Soc. Pol’y & L. 461 (2006)

Kauffman, Exposing the Suspicious Foundations of Society’s Primacy in Copyright Law: Five Accidents, 10 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 381 (1986)

Kemp, Copyright on Steroids: In Search of an End to Overprotection, 41 McGeorge L. Rev. 795 (2010)

Kim, The Representation of Two Competing Visions on the Fundamentals of Copyright: A Content Analysis of Associated Press News Coverage on Copyright, 2004-2009, 16 Comm. L. & Pol’y 49 (2010)

Kreiss, Accessability and Commercialization in Copyright Theory, 43 U.C.L.A. L. Rev. 1 (1995)

Kurtz, Commentary: Copyright and the Human Condition, 40 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 1233 (2007)

Kwall, Is the Jewish Tradition Intellectual Property?, 4 WIPO J. 129 (2012)

Kwall, The Lessons of Living Gardens and Jewish Process Theology for Authorship and Moral Rights, 14 Vand. J. Ent. & Tech. L. 889 (2012)

Ladd, The Harm of the Concept of Harm in Copyright, 30 J. Copyright Soc’y 421 (1983)

Landes & Posner, An Economic Analysis of Copyright Law, 18 J. Leg. Stud. 325 (1989)

Lange, At Play in the Fields of the Word: Copyright and the Construction of Authorship in the Post-Literate Millenium, 55 Law & Contemp. Probs. 139 (1992)

Lange, Recognizing the Public Domain, 44 Law & Contemp. Probs. 147 (1981)

Lange, Reimagining the Public Domain, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 463 (2003)

Lastowka, Innovative Copyright, 109 Mich. L. Rev. 1011 (2011)

Leaffer, Life After Eldred: The Supreme Court and the Future of Copyright, 30 Wm. Mitchell L. Rev. 1597 (2004)

Lebowitz, Is Efficient Copyright a Reasonable Goal?, 79 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 1692 (2011)

K. Lemley, The Innovative Medium Defense; A Doctrine to Promote the Multiple Goals of Copyright in the Wake of Advancing Digital Technologies, 110 Penn. St. L. Rev. 111 (2005)

M. Lemley, The Economics of Improvement in Intellectual Property Law, 75 Tex. L. Rev. 989 (1997)

Lessig, Innovating Copyright, 20 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 611 (2002)

Lichtman, Copyright as a Rule of Evidence, 52 Duke L.J. 683 (2003)

Lipton, Copyright’s Twilight Zone: Digital Copyright Lessons from the Vampire Blogosphere, 70 Md. L. Rev. 1 (2010) (and Bartow, Response: Bloodsucking Copyrights, 70 Md. L. Rev. 62 (2010))

Lipton, Information Property: Rights and Responsibility, 56 Fla. L. Rev. 135 (2004)

Litman, Convergence of Paradigms and Cultures: War Stories, Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 337 (2002)

Litman, Copyright and Information Policy, 55 Law & Contemp. Probs. 185 (1992)

Litman, Copyright, Compromise and Legislative History, 72 Cornell L. Rev. 857 (1987)

Litman, Copyright Legislation and Technological Change, 68 Or. L. Rev. 275 (1989)

Litman, Reforming Information Law in Copyright’s Image, 22 U. Dayton L. Rev. 587 (1997)

Litman, The Exclusive Right to Read, 75 Or. L. Rev. 299 (1996)

Litman, The Public Domain, 39 Emory L.J. 965 (1990)

Litman, War Stories, 20 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 337 (2002)

Liu, Copyright and Breathing Space, 30 Colum. J.L. & Arts 429 (2007)

Liu, Copyright Law’s Theory of the Consumer, 44 B.C. L. Rev 397 (2003)

Liu, Enabling Copyright Consumers, 22 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 1099 (2007)

Liu, Regulatory Copyright, 83 N.C. L. Rev. 87 (2004)

Long, Information Costs in Patent and Copyright, 90 Va. L. Rev. 465 (2004)

Long, First, “Let’s Kill All the Intellectual Property Lawyers!”: Musings on the Decline and Fall,of the Intellectual Property Empire, 34 J. Marshall L. Rev. 851 (2001)

Loren, The Pope’s Copyright? Aligning Incentives with Reality by Using Creative Motivation to Shape Copyright Protection, 69 La. L. Rev. 1 (2008)

Lunceford & Lunceford, The Irrelevance of Copyright in the Public Mind, 7 Nw. J. Tech. & Intell. Prop. 33 (2008)

Lunney, Reexamining Copyright’s IncentivesAccess Paradigm, 49 Vand. L. Rev. 483 (1996)

McGowan, Copyright Nonconsequentialism, 69 Mo. L. Rev. 1 (2004)

McGowan, Why the First Amendment Cannot Dictate Copyright Policy, 65 U. Pitt. L. Rev. 281 (2004)

Madison, Beyond Creativity: Copyright as Knowledge Law, 12 Vand. L. Ent. & Tech. L. 817 (2010)

Madison, Complexity and Copyright in Contradiction, 18 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 125 (2000)

Madison, Intellectual Property and Americana, or Why IP Gets the Blues, 18 Fordham Intell. Prop. Media & Ent. L.J. 677 (2008)

Madison, Knowledge Curation, 86 Notre Dame L. Rev. 141 (2011)

Madison, Notes on a Geography of Knowledge, 77 Fordham L. Rev. 2039 (2009)

Madison, Where Does Creativity Come From? And Other Stories of Copyright, 53 Case W. Res. 747 (2003)

Mandel, Left-Brain versus Right-Brain: Competing Conceptions of Creativity in Intellectual Property Law, 40 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 283 (2010)

Mandel, To Promote The Creative Process: Intellectual Property Law and the Psychology of Creation, 86 Notre Dame L. Rev. 1999 (2011)

Mathias, Some Unhurried Reflections on Copyright, 6 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 101 (1987)

Mazur & Fagundes, Costly Intellectual Property, 64 Vand. L. Rev. 677 (2012)

McDonald, Government Regulation or Other “Abridgements” of Scientific Research: The Proper Scope of Judicial Review Under the First Amendment, 54 Emory L.J. 979 (2005)

McDonald, Speech and Distrust: Rethinking the Content Approach to Protecting the Freedom of Expression, 81 Notre Dame L. Rev. 1347 (2006)

Menell, Knowledge Accessibility and Preservation Policy for the Digital Age, 44 Hous. L. Rev. 1013 (2007)

Merges, A New Dynamism in the Public Domain, 71 U. Chi. L. Rev. 183 (2004)

Merges, Of Property Rules, Coase, and Intellectual Property, 94 Colum. L. Rev. 2655 (1994)

Merges & Reynolds, The Proper Scope of the Copyright and Patent Power, 37 Harv. J. on Legis. 45 (2000)

Nachbar, Judicial Review and the Quest to Keep Copyright Pure, 2 J. Telecomm. & High Tech. L. 33 (2003)

Nadel, How Current Copyright Law Discourages Creative Output: The Overlooked Impact of Marketing, 19 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 785 (2004)

Netanel, Copyright Alienability Restrictions and the Enhancement of Author Autonomy: A Normative Evaluation, 24 Rutgers L.J. 347 (1993)

Netanel, Copyright and a Democratic Civil Society, 108 Yale L.J. 283 (1996)

Netanel, Cyberspace Self-Governance: A Skeptical View from Liberal Democratic Theory, 88 Cal. L. Rev. 395 (2000)

Netanel, Locating Copyright Within The First Amendment Skein, 54 Stan. L. Rev. 1 (2001)

Netanel, Market Hierarchy and Copyright in Our System of Free Expression, 53 Vand. L. Rev. 1879 (2000)

Netanel, New Media in Old Bottles? Barron’s Contextual First Amendment and Copyright in the Digital Age, 76 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 952 (2008)

Ng, Authors and Readers: Conceptualizing Authorship in Copyright Law, 30 Hastings Comm. & Ent. L.J. 377 (2008)

D. Nimmer, Codifying Copyright Comprehensibly, 51 UCLA L. Rev. 1233 (2004)

D. Nimmer, The End of Copyright, 48 Vand. L. Rev. 1385 (1995)

Ochoa, Origins and Meanings of the Public Domain, 28 Dayton L. Rev. 215 (2002)

Oliar, The Copyright-Innovation Tradeoff: Property Rules, Liability Rules, and Intentional Infliction of Harm, 64 Stan. L. Rev. 951 (2012)

Oliar & Sprigman, There’s No Free Laugh (Anymore): The Emergence of Intellectual Property Norms and Transformation of Stand-Up Comedy, 94 Va. L. Rev. 1787 (2008)

O’Rourke, Essay: Evaluating Mistakes in Intellectual Property Law: Configuring the System to Account for Imperfection, 4 J. Small & Emerging Bus. L. 167 (2000)

Palmer, Intellectual Property: A Non-Posnerian Law and Economics Approach, 12 Hamline L. Rev. 261 (1989)

Parchomovsky, Towards an Integrated Theory of Intellectual Property, 88 Va. L. Rev. 1455 (2002)

Patry, Copyright and the Legislative Process: A Personal Perspective, 14 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 139 (1996)

Patry, Metaphors and Moral Panics in Copyright, Intell. Prop. Q. 2008 1

Patry, The Enumerated Powers Doctrine and Intellectual Property: An Imminent Constitutional Collision, 67 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 359 (1999)

Patterson, Copyright in the New Millennium: Resolving the Conflict between Property Rights and Political Rights, 62 Ohio St. L.J. 703 (2001)

Patterson & Birch, A Unified Theory of Copyright, 46 Hous. L. Rev. 215 (Joyce ed. 2009)

Pessach, Copyright Law as a Silencing Restriction on Noninfringing Materials: Unveiling the Scope of Copyright’s Diversity Externalities, 76 So. Cal. L. Rev. 1067 (2003)

Pessach, Reciprocal Share-Alike Exemptions in Copyright Law, 30 Cardozo L. Rev. 1245 (2008)

Picker, Easterbrook on Copyright, 77 U. Chi. L. Rev. 1165 (2010)

Plant, The Economic Aspects of Copyright in Books, 1 Economica 167 (1934)

Radin, Property and Personhood, 34 Stan. L. Rev. 957 (1982)

Raskind, The Continuing Process of Refining and Adapting Copyright Principles, 14 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 125 (1990)

Reichman, Legal Hybrids Between the Patent and Copyright Paradigms, 94 Colum. L. Rev. 2432 (1994)

Rothman, Liberating Copyright: Thinking Beyond Free Speech, 95 Cornell L. Rev. 463 (2010)

Sag, Beyond Abstraction, The Law and Economics of Copyright Scope and Doctrinal Efficiency, 81 Tulane L. Rev. 187 (2006)

Samuelson, Enriching Discourse on Public Domains, 55 Duke L.J. 783 (2006)

Samuelson, Is Copyright Reform Possible?, 126 Harv. L. Rev. 740 (2013)

Samuelson, Mapping the Digital Public Domain: Threats and Opportunities, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 147 (2003)

Samuelson, Preliminary Thoughts on Copyright Reform, 2007 Utah L. Rev. 551

Samuelson, The Copyright Principles Project: Directions for Reform, 25 Berkeley Tech L.J. 1175 (2010)

Schnably, Property and Pragmatism: A Critique of Radin’s Theory of Property and Personhood, 45 Stan. L. Rev. 347 (1993)

Shipley, Congressional Authority Over Intellectual Property Policy After Eldred v. Ashcroft: Deference, Empty Limitations, and Risks to the Public Domain, 70 Alb. L. Rev. 1255 (2007)

Silbey, Comparative Tales of Origins and Access: Intellecutal Property and the Rhetoric of Social Change, 61 Case W. Res. L. Rev. 195 (2010)

Sprigman, Indirect Enforcement of the Intellectual Property Clause, 30 Colum. J.L. & Arts 565 (2007)

Stadler, Copyright as Trade Regulation, 155 U. Pa. L. Rev. 899 (2007)

Stadler, Forging a Truly Utilitarian Copyright, 91 Iowa L. Rev. 609 (2006)

Stadler, Incentive and Expectation in Copyright, 58 Hastings L.J. 433 (2007)

Sterk, Intellectualizing Property: The Tenuous Connections Between Land and Copyright, 83 Wash. U. L.Q. 417 (2005)

Sterk, Rhetoric and Reality in Copyright Law, 94 Mich. L. Rev. 1197 (1996)

Suchman, Invention and Ritual: Notes on the Interrelation of Magic and Intellectual Property in Preliterate Societies, 89 Colum. L. Rev. 1264 (1989)

Sunder, The Invention of Traditional Knowledge, 70 Law & Contemp. Probs. 97 (2007)

Swanson, The Role of Disclosure in Modern Copyright Law, 70 J. Pat. & Trademark Off. Soc’y 217 (1988)

Tehranian, An Unhurried View of Copyright Reform: Bridging the Law/Norm Gap, 2007 Utah L. Rev. 537 (2007)

Tehranian, Towards a Critical IP Theory: Copyright, Consecration, and Control, 2012 B.Y.U. L. Rev. 1237 (2012)

Torremans, Is Copyright a Human Right?, 2007 Mich. St. L. Rev 271

Treiger-Bar-Am, Kant on Copyright: Rights of Transformative Authorship, 25 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 1059 (2008)

Trosow, The Illusive Search for Justificatory Theories: Copyright, Commodification and Capital, 16 Can. J.L. & Jurisprudence 217 (2003)

Tushnet, Legal Fictions: Copyright, Fan Fiction, and a New Common Law, 17 Loy. L.A. Ent. L.J. 651 (1997)

Tushnet, Copyright as a Model for Free Speech Law: What Copyright Has in Common With Anti-Pornography Laws, Campaign Finance Reform, and Telecommunications Regulation, 42 B.C. L. Rev. 1 (2000)

Tyerman, The Economic Rationale for Copyright Protection for Published Books: A Reply to Professor Breyer, 18 UCLA L. Rev. 1100 (1971)

Valkonen & White, An Economic Model for the Incentive/Access Paradigm of Copyright Propertization: An Argument in Support of the Orphan Works Act, 29 Hastings Comm. & Ent. L.J. 359 (2007)

Van Houweling, Authors versus Owners, 54 Hous. L. Rev. 371 (2016)

Van Houweling, Author Autonomy and Atomism in Copyright Law, 96 Va. L. Rev. 549 (2010)

Van Houweling, Cultural Environmentalism and the Constructed Common, 70 Law & Contemp. Probs. 23 (2007)

Van Houweling, Distributive Values in Copyright, 83 Tex. L. Rev. 1535 (2005)

Vaver, Intellectual Property Today: Of Myths and Paradoxes, 69 Can. Bar Rev. 98 (1990)

VerSteeg, Rhetoric and Law in Ovid’s Orpheus, 15 Law & Literature 395 (2003)

Waldfogel, Copyright Protection, Technological Change, and the Quality of New Products: Evidence from Recorded Music Since Napster, 55 J.L. & Econ. 715 (2012)

Waldron, From Authors to Copiers: Individual Rights and Social Values in Intellectual Property, 68 Chi.-Kent L. Rev. 847 (1993)

Wilde, Replacing the Idea/Expression Metaphor With a Market-Based Analysis in Copyright Infringement Actions, 16 Whittier L. Rev. 793 (1995)

Winslow, Rapping on a Revolving Door: An Economic Analysis of Parody & Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music, Inc., 69 S. Cal. L. Rev. 767 (1996)

Wong, Toward an Alternative Normative Framework for Copyright: From Private Property to Human Rights, 26 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 775 (2009)

Woodmansee, The Genius and the Copyright, 17 Eighteenth Century Studies 425 (1984)

Wu, Copyright’s Communications Policy, 103 Mich. L. Rev. 278 (2004)

Yen, A Preliminary Economic Analysis of Napster: Internet Technology, Copyright Liability, and The Possibility of Coasean Bargaining, 26 U. Dayton L. Rev. 247 (2001)

Yen, Copyright Opinions and Aesthetic Theory, 71 S. Cal. L. Rev. 247 (1998)

Yen, Eldred, the First Amendment, and Aggressive Copyright Claims, 40 Hous. L. Rev. 673 (2003)

Yen, Restoring the Natural Law: Copyright as Labor and Possession, 51 Ohio St. L.J. 517 (1990)

Yen, The Interdisciplinary Future of Copyright Theory, 10 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 423 (1992)

Yen, Western Frontier or Feudal Society?: Metaphors and Perceptions of Cyberspace, 17 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 1207 (2002)

Yoo, Copyright and Product Differentiation, 79 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 212 (2004)

Yoo, Copyright and Public Good Economics: A Misunderstood Relation, 155 U. Pa. L. Rev. 635 (2007)

Zimmerman, Is There a Right to Have Something to Say? One View of the Public Domain, 73 Fordham L. Rev. (2004)

Chapter 2

PREREQUISITES FOR COPYRIGHT PROTECTION

Reference Works

H. Abrams, The Law of Copyright §§ 2.1 to 2.67, 8.1 to 8.7 (2013)

P. Goldstein, Goldstein on Copyright §§ 2.0 to 2.5, 18.4 (2013)

M. Leaffer, Understanding Copyright Law §§ 2.01 to 2.07, 2.13 to 2.14 (5th ed. 2010)

M. Nimmer & D. Nimmer, Nimmer on Copyright §§ 1.01 to 1.12, 2.01 to 2.02, 5.05 to 5.15 (2013)

W. Patry, Patry on Copyright §§ 3:1 to 3:45, 4:1 to 4:88 (2013)

Fixation

Brandriss, Writing in Frost on a Window Pane: E-mail and Chatting on RAM and Copyright Fixation, 43 J. Copyright Soc’y 237 (1996)

Damman, Copyright of Computer Display Screens: Summary and Suggestions, 9 Computer L.J. 417 (1989)

McQueen, “My tongue is mine ain”: Copyright, the Spoken Word and Privacy, 68 Mod. L.Q. 349 (2005)

Note, Fixing Fixation: A Copyright With Teeth for Improvisational Performers, 97 Colum. L. Rev. 1363 (1997)

Perzanowski, Fixing RAM Copies, 104 Nw. U.L. Rev. 1067 (2010)

Staines, Idee or Idee Fixe?, 50 Mod. L. Rev. 368 (1987)

Whiting, Square Dance: Fitting the Square Peg of Fixation into the Round Hole of Choreography, 65 Vand. L. Rev. 1261 (2012)

Originality and Authorship Generally

Abrams, Originality and Creativity in Copyright Law, 55 Law & Contemp. Probs. 3 (1992)

Aoki, (Intellectual) Property and Sovereignty: Notes Toward a Cultural Geography of Authorship, 48 Stan. L. Rev. 1293 (1996)

Baade, Photographer’s Rights: Case for Sufficient Originality Test in Copyright, 30 J. Marshall L. Rev. 149 (1996)

Booth & Yera, Judicial Review, Copyrightability and the Register’s Discretion: A New Direction?, 7 U. Miami Ent. & Sports L. Rev. 255 (1990)

Brown, Eligibility for Copyright Protection: A Search for Principled Standards, 70 Minn. L. Rev. 579 (1985)

Cameron, In Defiance of Bridgeman: Claiming Copyright in Photographic Reproductions of Public Domain Works, 15 Tex. Intell. Prop. L.J. 31 (2006)

Clifford, Intellectual Property in the Era of Creative Computer Programs: Will the True Creator Please Stand Up?, 71 Tul. L. Rev. 1675 (1997)

Craig, Resisting ‘Sweat’ and Refusing Feist: Rethinking Originality After CCH, 40 U.B.C. L. Rev. 69 (2007)

Dreier & Karnell, Originality of the Copyrighted Work: A European Perspective, 39 J. Copyright Soc’y 289 (1992)

Durham, The Random Muse: Authorship and Indeterminacy, 44 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 569 (2002)

Durham, Speaking of the World: Fact, Opinion and the Originality Standard of Copyright, 33 Ariz. St. L.J. 791 (2001)

Dusollier, Open Source and Copyleft: Authorship Reconsidered, 26 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 281 (2003)

Elkin-Koren, Of Scientific Claims and Proprietary Rights: Lessons from the Dead Sea Scrolls Case, 38 Hous. L. Rev. 445 (2001)

Gasaway, Libraries, Users, and the Problems of Authorship in the Digital Age, 52 DePaul L. Rev. 1193 (2003)

Goodman, Media Policy and Free Speech: The First Amendment at War with Itself, 35 Hofstra L. Rev. 1211 (2007)

Gorman, Copyright Courts and Aesthetic Judgments: Abuse or Necessity?, 25 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 1 (2001)

Hughes, Size Matters (or Should) in Copyright Law, 74 Fordham L. Rev. 575 (2005)

Hussey, The Sine Qua Non of Copyright, 51 J. Copyright Soc’y 763 (2004)

Jaszi, Toward a Theory of Copyright: The Metamorphosis of “Authorship,” 41 Duke L.J. 455 (1991)

Johnson, Statute of Anne-imals: Should Copyright Protect Sentient Nonhuman Creators?, 15 Animal L. 15 (2008)

Joyce & Ochoa, Reach Out and Touch Someone:  Reflections on the 25th Anniversary of Feist Publications, Inc. v. Rural Telephone Service Co., 54 Hous. L. Rev. 257 (2016)

Karjala, Copyright and Misappropriation, 17 U. Dayton L. Rev. 885 (1992)

Kogan, Photographic Reproductions, Copyright and the Slavish Copy, 35 Colum. J.L. & Arts 445 (2012)

Kremers, Speaking With a Forked Tongue in the Global Debate on Traditional Knowledge and Genetic Resources: Are U.S. Intellectual Property Law and Policy Really Aimed at Meaningful Protection for Native American Cultures, 15 Fordham Intell. Prop. Media & Ent. L.J. 1 (2004)

Kwall, Originality in Context, 44 Hous. L. Rev. 871 (2007)

Lange, At Play in the Fields of the Word: Copyright and the Construction of Authorship in the Post-Literate Millennium, 55 Law & Contemp. Probs. 139 (1992)

Lanham, Barbie and the Teacher of Righteousness: Two Lessons in the Economics of Attention, 38 Hous. L. Rev. 499 (2001)

Lee, Digital Originality, 14 Vand. J. Ent. & Tech. L. 919 (2012)

Mandel, Left-Brain versus Right-Brain: Competing Conceptions of Creativity in Intellectual Property Law, 40 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 283 (2010)

Mandel, To Promote The Creative Process: Intellectual Property Law and the Psychology of Creation, 86 Notre Dame L. Rev. 1999 (2011)

D. Nimmer, Copyright in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Authorship and Originality, 38 Hous. L. Rev. 1 (2001)

Oakes, The Dead Sea Scrolls: A Live Copyright Controversy, 38 Hous. L. Rev. 219 (2001)

Olson, Copyright Originality, 48 Mo. L. Rev. 29 (1983)

Oppenheimer, Originality in Art Reproductions: “Variations” in Search of a Theme, 26 Bull. Copyright Soc’y 1 (1978)

Patterson, Nimmer’s Copyright in the Dead Sea Scrolls: A Comment, 38 Hous. L. Rev. 431 (2001)

Ricketson, The Concept of Originality in Anglo-Australian Copyright Law, 39 J. Copyright Soc’y 265 (1992)

Rosen, Reimagining Bleistein: Copyright for Advertisements in Historical Perspective, 59 J. Copyright Soc’y 347 (2012)

Samuelson, The Originality Standard for Literary Works Under U.S. Copyright Law, 42 Am. J. Comp. L. 393 (1994)

Stoddard, Mother Nature as Muse: Copyright Protection for Works of Art and Photographs Inspired By, Based On, Or Depicting Nature, 86 N.C. L. Rev. 572 (2008)

Sookman, Computer-Assisted Creation of Works Protected by Copyright, 5 Intell. Prop. J. 165 (1990)

Subotnik, Originality Proxies: Toward a Theory of Copyright and Creativity, 76 Brooklyn L. Rev. 1486 (2011)

VerSteeg, Defining “Author” for Purposes of Copyright, 45 Am. U. L. Rev. 1323 (1996)

VerSteeg, Intent, Originality, Creativity and Joint Authorship, 68 Brook. L. Rev. 123 (2002)

VerSteeg, Rethinking Originality (in Copyright), 34 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 801 (1993)

VerSteeg, Sparks in the Tinderbox: Feist, Creativity and the Legislative History of the 1976 Copyright Act, 57 U. Pitt. L. Rev. 549 (1995)

Weinstein, Ancient Works, Modern Dilemmas: The Dead Sea Scrolls Copyright Case, 43 Am. U. L. Rev. 1637 (1994)

Wilkof, Copyright, Moral Rights and the Choice of Law: Where Did the Dead Sea Scrolls Court Go Wrong?, 38 Hous. L. Rev. 463 (2001)

Woodmansee, Response to David Nimmer, 38 Hous. L. Rev. 231 (2001)

Wojcik, The Antithesis of Originality: Bridgeman, Image Licensors, and the Public Domain, 30 Hastings Comm. & Ent. L.J. 257 (2008)

Zimmerman, It’s An Original!(?): In Pursuit of Copyright’s Elusive Essence, 28 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 187 (2005)

The Idea/Expression Distinction

A. Cohen, Copyright Law and the Myth of Objectivity: The Idea-Expression Dichotomy and the Inevitability of Artistic Value Judgments, 66 Ind. L.J. 175 (1990)

Boyden, Games and Other Uncopyrightable Systems, 18 Geo. Mason L. Rev. 439 (2011)

Detterman, The Scope of Copyright Protection for Computer Programs: Exploring the Idea-Expression Dichotomy, 20 Intell. Prop. L. Rev. 399 (1988)

Gambrell, Hamilton & Hood, Whelan & Altai: Protecting Software by Abusing Idea and Expression, 11 Computer Law. 9 (1994)

Grimmelmann, Three Theories of Copyright in Ratings, 14 Vand. J. Ent. & Tech. L. 851 (2012)

Katz, Expanded Notions of Copyright Protection: Idea Protection Within the Copyright Act, 77 B.U. L. Rev. 873 (1997)

Kellogg, The Problem of Fictional Facts: Idea, Expression and Copyright’s Balance Between Author Incentive and Public Interest, 58 J. Copyright Soc’y 549 (2011)

Kurtz, Speaking to the Ghost: Idea and Expression in Copyright, 47 U. Miami L. Rev. 1221 (1993)

Libott, Round the Prickly Pear: The Idea-Expression Fallacy in a Mass Communications World, 14 UCLA L. Rev. 735 (1967)

Olson, The Uneasy Legacy of Baker v. Selden, 43 S.D. L. Rev. 604 (1998)

Patry, The Enumerated Powers Doctrine and Intellectual Property: An Imminent Constitutional Collision, 67 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 359 (1999)

Reichman, Computer Programs as Applied Scientific Know-How: Implication of Copyright Protection for Commercialized University Research, 42 Vand. L. Rev. 639 (1989)

Samuels, The Idea-Expression Dichotomy in Copyright Law, 56 Tenn. L. Rev. 321 (1989)

Samuelson, Why Copyright Law Excludes Systems and Processes from the Scope of Its Protection, 85 Tex. L. Rev. 1921 (2007)

Spivack, Does Form Follow Function? The Idea-Expression Dichotomy in Copyright Protection of Computer Software, 35 UCLA L. Rev. 723 (1988)

Wilde, Replacing the Idea/Expression Metaphor With a Market-Based Analysis in Copyright Infringement Actions, 16 Whittier L. Rev. 793 (1995).

Yen, A First Amendment Perspective on the Idea/Expression Dichotomy and Copyright in a Work’s “Total Concept and Feel,” 38 Emory L.J. 393 (1989)

Government Works

Cunningham, Private Standards in Public Law: Copyright, Lawmaking and the Case of Accounting, 74 Fordham L. Rev. 291 (2005).

Ghosh, Copyright as Privatization: The Case of Model Codes, 78 Tul. L. Rev. 653 (2004)

Ghosh, Legal Code and the Need for a Broader Functionality Doctrine in Copyright, 50 J. Copyright Soc’y 71 (2003)

Nadiff, Copyrightability of Works of the Federal and State Governments Under the 1976 Act, 29 St. Louis U. L.J. 91 (1984)

Patterson & Joyce, Monopolizing the Law: The Scope of Copyright Protection for Law Reports and Statutory Compilations, 36 UCLA L. Rev. 719 (1989)

Samuelson, Questioning Copyrights in Standards, 48 B.C. L. Rev. 193 (2007)

Trosow, Copyright Protection for Federally Funded Research: Necessary Incentive or Double Subsidy?, 22 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 613 (2004)

Valoir, Deposition Transcripts: Are They Subject to Copyright Protection?, 17 Intell. Prop. & Tech. L.J. 1 (2005)

Wittig, Zelenka, Smith, & Manz, Government Works in an International Marketplace: The Copyright Issue, 2002 Syracuse L. & Tech. J. 1 (2002)

Chapter 3

WORKS OF AUTHORSHIP

Reference Works

H. Abrams, The Law of Copyright §§ 3.1 to 3.33, 20.1 to 20.37 (2013)

P. Goldstein, Goldstein on Copyright §§ 2.6 to 2.18, 17.26 to 17.34 (2013)

M. Leaffer, Understanding Copyright Law §§ 2.08 to 2.12, 2.15, 3.01 to 3.22 (5th ed. 2010)

M. Nimmer & D. Nimmer, Nimmer on Copyright §§ 2.02 to 2.20, 3.01 to 3.08, 8A.01 to 8A.21 (2013)

W. Patry, Patry on Copyright §§ 3:46 to 3:164 (2013)

Literary Works Generally

M. Biagioli & P. Galison (eds.), Scientific Authorship (2003)

E.G. Perle & J.T. Williams, The Publishing Law Handbook (2013)

R. Wincor, The Art of Character Licensing (1996)

Abromson, The Copyrightability of Sports Celebration Moves: Dance Fever or Just Plain Sick?, 14 Marquette Sports L. Rev. 571 (2004)

Aoki, Contradiction and Context in American Copyright Law, 9 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 303 (1991)

Ariens, The Ethics of Copyrighting Ethics Rules, 36 U. Toledo L. Rev. 235 (2005)

Bartholomew, Protecting the Performers: Setting a New Standard for Character Copyrightability, 41 Santa Clara L. Rev. 341 (2001)

Beall, Can Anyone Own a Piece of the Clock? The Troublesome Application of Copyright Law to Works of Historical Fiction, Interpretation, and Theory, 42 Emory L.J. 253 (1993)

Bilder, The Shrinking Back: The Law of Biography, 43 Stan. L. Rev. 299 (1991)

Burcart, No Title to Titles: An Analysis of the Lack of Copyright Protection for Literary Titles, 32 Copyright L. Symp. (ASCAP) 75 (1986)

Cotter & Mirabole, Written on the Body: Intellectual Property Rights in Tattoos, Makeup, and Other Body Art, 10 UCLA Ent. L. Rev. 97 (2003)

Easton, Who Owns “The First Rough Draft of History”? Reconsidering Copyright in News, 27 Colum.-VLA J.L & Arts 521 (2004)

Effross, Owning Enlightenment: Proprietary Spirituality in the “New Age” Marketplace, 51 Buff. L. Rev. 483 (2003)

Ginsburg, Sabotaging and Reconstructing History: A Comment on the Scope of Copyright Protection in Works of History After Hoehling v. Universal City Studios, 29 J. Copyright Soc’y 647 (1982)

Gorman, Fact or Fancy? The Implications for Copyright, 29 J. Copyright Soc’y 560 (1982)

Hill, Copyright Protection for Historical Research: A Defense of the Minority View, 31 Copyright L. Symp. (ASCAP) 45 (1984)

Kidwell, Open Records Laws and Copyright, 1989 Wis. L. Rev. 1021

Kurtz, Copyright: The Scenes a Faire Doctrine, 41 Fla. L. Rev. 79 (1989)

Kurtz, Digital Actors and Copyright — from the Polar Express to Simone, 21 Santa Clara Computer & High Tech. L.J. 783 (2005)

Kurtz, Protection for Titles of Literary Works in the Public Domain, 37 Rutgers L. Rev. 53 (1984)

Kurtz, The Independent Legal Lives of Fictional Characters, 1986 Wis. L. Rev. 429

Kurtz, The Methuselah Factor: When Characters Outlive Their Copyrights, 11 U. Miami Ent. & Sports L. Rev. 437 (1994)

Lalor, Copyrightability of Cartoon Characters, 35 IDEA 497 (1995)

Madison, The End of the Work as We Know It, 19 J. Intell. Prop. L. 325 (2012)

Murray, Copyrightability, Originality, and the End of the Scenes a Faire and Merger Doctrines for Visual Works, 58 Baylor L. Rev. 779 (2006)

Nevins, Copyright + Character = Catastrophe, 39 J. Copyright Soc’y 303 (1992)

Poliakoff, License to Copyright: The Ongoing Dispute Over the Ownership of James Bond, 18 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 387 (2000)

Pollack, Intellectual Property Protection for the Creative Chef, or How to Copyright a Cake: A Modest Proposal, 12 Cardozo L. Rev. 1477 (1991)

Shipley, A Dangerous Undertaking Indeed: Juvenile Humor, Raunchy Jokes, Obscene Materials and Bad Taste in Copyright, 98 Ky. L.J. 517 (2010)

Shipley & Hay, Protecting Research: Copyright, Common Law Alternatives, and Federal Preemption, 63 N.C.L. Rev. 125 (1984)

Stim, E.T. Phone Home: The Protection of Literary Phrases, 7 U. Miami Ent. & Sports L. Rev. 65 (1989)

Syn, Copyright God: Enforcement of Copyright in the Bible and Religious Works, 14 Regent U.L. Rev. 277 (2001)

Tannenbaum, Uses of Titles for Copyright and Public Domain Works, 6 Bull. Copyright Soc’y 64 (1958)

Tushnet, Legal Fictions: Copyright, Fan Fiction & a New Common Law, 17 Loy. L.A. Ent. L.J. 651 (1997)

Wang, The Copyrightability of Legal Complaints, B.C. L. Rev. 705 (2004)

Welkowitz, Intellectual Property and DNA: Copyright and Trademark Applications, 24 Whittier L. Rev. 473 (2002)

Software-Related Issues

S. Fishman, Legal Guide to Web & Software Development (5th ed. 2007)

R. Nimmer, The Law of Computer Technology: Rights, Licenses, Liabilities (2013)

R. Nimmer & H. Towle, The Law of Electronic Commercial Transactions (2013)

Office of Technology Assessment, Computer Software: Copyright, Patents and the Challenge of Technological Change (1993)

Amin, The Lack of Protection Afforded Software Under the Current Intellectual Property Laws, 43 Clev. St. L. Rev. 19 (1995)

Bobko, Open-Source Software and the Demise of Copyright, 27 Rutgers Computer & Tech. L.J. 51 (2001)

Butler, Pragmatism in Software Copyright: Computer Associates v. Altai, 6 Harv. J.L. & Tech. 183 (1992)

Capes, The Software Copyright “Super Patent,” 12 Computer Law. 8 (1995)

Cass, Copyright, Licensing, and the “First Screen,” 5 Mich. Telecomm. Tech. L. Rev. 35 (1999)

Clapes, Lynch & Steinberg, Silicon Epics and Binary Bards: Determining the Proper Scope of Copyright Protection for Computer Programs, 34 UCLA L. Rev. 1493 (1987)

J. Cohen, Reverse Engineering and the Rise of Electronic Vigilantism: Intellectual Property Implications of “Lock-out” Programs, 68 S. Cal. L. Rev. 1091 (1995)

Cook, Music Publishers Slay Musicianship (Web Sites Hosting Guitar Tablature), 8 Tex. Rev. Ent. & Sports L. 101 (2007)

Derwin, It Is Time to Put “Look and Feel” Out to Pasture, 15 Hastings Comm. & Ent. L.J. 605 (1993)

Englund, Idea, Process, or Protected Expression? Determining the Scope of Copyright Protection of the Structure of Computer Programs, 88 Mich. L. Rev. 866 (1990)

Ginsburg, Four Reasons and a Paradox: The Manifest Superiority of Copyright Over Sui Generis Protection of Computer Software, 94 Colum. L. Rev. 2559 (1994)

Goldberg & Carson, Copyright Protection for Artificial Intelligence Systems, 39 J. Copyright Soc’y 57 (1991)

Gorman, Comments on a Manifesto Concerning the Legal Protection of Computer Programs, 5 Alb. L.J. Sci. & Tech. 277 (1996)

Graham & Zerbe, Economically Efficient Treatment of Computer Software: Reverse Engineering, Protection & Disclosure, 22 Rutgers Computer & Tech. L.J. 61 (1996)

Gue, Triggering Infection: Distribution and Derivative Works Under the GNU General Public License, 2012 U. Ill. J.L. Tech. & Pol’y 95 (2012)

Hamilton & Sabety, Computer Science Concepts in Copyright Cases: The Path to a Coherent Law, 10 Harv. J.L. & Tech. 239 (1997)

Hardy, Six Copyright Theories for the Protection of Computer Object Programs, 26 Ariz. L. Rev. 845 (1984)

Hardy, The Copyrightability of New Works of Authorship: “XML Schemas” as an Example, 38 Hous. L. Rev. 855 (2001)

Hardy, The Policy, Law, and Facts of Copyrighting Computer Screen Displays: An Essay, 11 Computer L.J. 371 (1992)

Hazen, Contract Principles as a Guide for Protecting Intellectual Property Rights in Computer Software: The Limits of Copyright Protection, the Evolving Concept of Derivative Works, and the Proper Limits of Licensing Arrangements, 20 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 105 (1986)

Kaplan, Apple v. Franklin 20 Years Later: Copyright and the Internet, 22 Temp. Envtl. L. & Tech. J. 1 (2003)

Karjala, A Coherent Theory for the Copyright Protection of Computer Software and Recent Judicial Interpretations, 66 U. Cin. L. Rev. 53 (1997)

Karjala, Copyright Law: Copyright Protection of Computer Program Structure, 64 Brooklyn L. Rev. 519 (1998)

Karjala, Copyright Protection of Computer Documents, Reverse Engineering, and Professor Miller, 19 Dayton L. Rev. 975 (1994)

Karjala, Lessons from the Computer Software Protection Debate in Japan, 1984 Ariz. St. L.J. 53

Karjala, Policy Considerations: Theoretical Foundations for the Protection of Computer Programs in Developing Countries, 13 UCLA Pac. Basin L.J. 179 (1994)

Karjala, The Relative Roles of Patent and Copyright in the Protection of Computer Programs, 17 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 41 (1998)

Karjala, Theoretical Foundations for the Protection of Computer Programs in Developing Countries, 13 UCLA Pac. Basin L.J. 179 (1994)

Kasch, The Semiconductor Chip Protection Act: Past, Present, and Future, 7 High Tech. L.J. 71 (1992)

Kreiss, Copyright Protection and Reverse Engineering of Software, 19 U. Dayton L. Rev. 837 (1994)

Kreiss, Section 117 of the Copyright Act (Computer Programs), 1991 B.Y.U. L. Rev. 1497

Last Frontier Conference Report, Computer Software and Copyright Protection, 30 Jurimetrics J. 15 (1989)

M. Lemley & O’Brien, Encouraging Software Reuse, 49 Stan. L. Rev. 255 (1997)

Levine, Comment on Bonito Boats Follow-Up: The Supreme Court’s Likely Rejection of Non-Literal Software Copyright Protection, 6 Computer Law. 29 (1989)

Loren, The Changing Nature of Derivative Works in the Face of New Technologies, 4 J. Small & Emerging Bus. L. 57 (2000)

Lunney, Lotus v. Borland: Copyright and Computer Programs, 70 Tul. L. Rev. 2397 (1996)

Menell, Tailoring Legal Protection for Computer Software, 39 Stan. L. Rev. 1329 (1987)

Menell, The Challenges of Reforming Intellectual Property Protection for Computer Software, 94 Colum. L. Rev. 2644 (1994)

Miller, Copyright Protection for Computer Programs, Databases, and Computer-Generated Works: Is Anything New Since CONTU?, 106 Harv. L. Rev. 977 (1993)

R. Nimmer & P. Krauthaus, Classification of Computer Software for Legal Protection: International Perspectives, 21 Int’l Law. 733 (1987)

R. Nimmer & P. Krauthaus, Copyright and Software Technology Infringement: Defining Third Party Development Rights, 62 Ind. L.J. 13 (1986)

R. Nimmer & P. Krauthaus, Software Copyright: Sliding Scales and Abstracted Expression, 32 Hous. L. Rev. 317 (1995)

Oddi, An Uneasier Case for Copyright Than for Patent Protection of Computer Programs, 72 Neb. L. Rev. 351 (1993)

Patry, Copyright and Computer Programs: A Failed Experiment and a Solution to a Dilemma, 46 N.Y.L. Sch. L. Rev. 201 (2002)

Pollack, The Right to Know?: Delimiting Database Protection at the Juncture of the Commerce Clause, the Intellectual Property Clause, and the First Amendment, 17 Cardozo Arts &. Ent. L.J. 47 (1999)

Raskind, The Uncertain Case for Special Legislation Protecting Computer Software, 47 U. Pitt. L. Rev. 1131 (1986)

Reuveni, On Virtual Worlds: Copyright and Contract Law at the Dawn of the Virtual Age, 82 Ind. L.J. 261 (2007)

Samuelson, Allocating Ownership Rights in Computer-Generated Works, 47 U. Pitt. L. Rev. 1185 (1986)

Samuelson, Benson Revisited: The Case Against Patent Protection for Algorithms and Other Computer Program-Related Works, 39 Emory L.J. 1025 (1990)

Samuelson, Comparing U.S. and EC Copyright Protection for Computer Programs: Are They More Different Than They Seem?, 13 J.L. & Com. 279 (1994)

Samuelson, Computer Programs, User Interfaces, and Section 102(b) of the Copyright Act of 1976: A Critique of Lotus v. Paperback, 55 Law & Contemp. Probs. 311 (1992)

Samuelson, CONTU Revisited: The Case Against Copyright Protection for Computer Programs in Machine-Readable Form, 1984 Duke L.J. 663

Samuelson, Creating a New Kind of Intellectual Property: Applying the Lessons of the Chip Law to Computer Programs, 70 Minn. L. Rev. 471 (1985)

Samuelson, How to Interpret the Lotus Decision (And How Not To), 33 Comm. of the ACM 27 (1990)

Samuelson, Modifying Copyrighted Software: Adjusting Copyright Doctrine to Accommodate a Technology, 28 Jurimetrics J. 179 (1988)

Samuelson, Reflections on the State of American Software Copyright Law and the Perils of Teaching It, 13 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 61 (1988)

Samuelson, Some New Kinds of Authorship Made Possible by Computer and Some Intellectual Property Problems They Raise, 53 U. Pitt. L. Rev. 685 (1992)

Samuelson, Davis, Kapor & Reichman, A Manifesto Concerning the Legal Protection of Computer Programs, 94 Colum. L. Rev. 2308 (1994)

Stern, Copyright in Computer Programming Languages, 17 Rutgers Computer & Tech. L.J. 321 (1991)

Stern, Legal Protection for Screen Displays and Other User Interfaces for Computers: A Problem in Balancing Incentives for Creation Against Need for Free Access to the Utilitarian, 14 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 283 (1990)

Stern, Scope-of-Protection Problems With Patents and Copyrights on Methods of Doing Business, 10 Fordham Intell. Prop. Media & Ent. L.J. 105 (1999)

Tache, Copyrightability of Computer Languages: Natural Expansion of Copyright Law or Destruction of the Copyright/Patent Distinction?, 72 J. Pat. & Trademark Off. Soc’y 564 (1990)

Teter, Merger and the Machines: An Analysis of the Pro-Compatibility Trend in Computer Software Copyright Cases, 45 Stan. L. Rev. 1061 (1993)

Walker, Protectable “Nuggets”: Drawing the Line Between Idea and Expression in Computer Program Copyright Protection, 44 J. Copyright Soc’y 79 (1996)

Weinreb, Copyright for Functional Expression, 111 Harv. L. Rev. 1149 (1998)

Wilkins, Protecting Computer Programs as Compilations Under Computer Associates v. Altai, 104 Yale L.J. 435 (1994)

Zimmerman, Can Our Culture Be Saved? The Future of Digital Archiving, 91 Minn. L. Rev. 989 (2007)

Musical Works and Sound Recordings

U.S. Copyright Office, Federal Copyright Protection for Pre-1972 Sound Recordings (2011)

Arewa, Creativity, Improvisation, and Risk: Copyright and Musical Innovation, 86 Notre Dame L. Rev. 1829 (2011)

Arewa, From J.C. Bach to Hip Hop: Musical Borrowing, Copyright and Cultural Context, 84 N.C. L. Rev. 547 (2006)

Arewa, YouTube, UGC, and Digital Music: Competing Business and Cultural Models in the Internet Age, 104 Nw. U. L. Rev. 431 (2010)

Brauneis, Copyright and the World’s Most Popular Song, 56 J. Copyright Soc’y 335 (2009)

Brylawski, Motion Picture Soundtrack Music: A Gap or Gaff in Copyright Protection?, 40 J. Copyright Soc’y 333 (1993)

Calamita, Coming to Terms With the Celestial Juke Box: Keeping the Sound Recording Copyright Viable in the Digital Age, 74 B.U. L. Rev. 505 (1994)

Carroll, A Primer on U.S. Intellectual Property Rights Applicable to Music Information Retrieval Systems, 2003 U. Ill. J.L. Tech. & Pol’y 313 (2003)

Carroll, The Struggle for Music Copyright, 57 Fla. L. Rev. 907 (2005)

Carroll, Whose Music Is It Anyway?: How We Came to View Musical Expression as a Form of Property, 72 U. Cinn. L. Rev. 1405 (2004)

Erlinger, An Analog Solution in a Digital World: Providing Federal Copyright Protection for Pre-1972 Sound Recordings, 16 UCLA Ent. L. Rev. 45 (2008)

Flavin, A Digital Cry for Help: Internet Radio’s Struggle to Survive a Second Royalty Rate Determination under the Willing Buyer/Willing Seller Standard, 27 St. Louis U. Pub. L. Rev. 427 (2008)

Hall, Blues and the Public Domain — No More Dues to Pay, 42 J. Copyright Soc’y 215 (1995)

Heald, Reviving the Rhetoric of the Public Interest: Choir Directors, Copy Machines, and New Arrangements of Public Domain Music, 46 Duke L.J. 241 (1996)

Henslee, Marybeth Peters Is Almost Right: An Alternative to Her Proposals to Reform the Compulsory License Scheme for Music, 48 Washburn L.J. 107 (2008)

Henslee, “What’s Wrong with U.S.?”: Why the United States Should Have a Public Performance Right for Sound Recordings, 13 Vand. J. Ent. & Tech. L. 739 (2011)

Kravis, Does a Song by any Other Name Still Sound As Sweet?: Digital Sampling and Its Copyright Implications, 43 Am. U. L. Rev. 231 (1993)

Leventhal, Would You Want William Hung as Your Trier of Fact? The Case for a Specialized Musicological Tribunal, 90 Tex. L. Rev. 1557 (2012)

Note, Jazz Has Got Copyright Law and That Ain’t Good, 118 Harv. L. Rev. 1940 (2005)

Osterberg, Should Sound Recordings Really be Treated Differently than Other Copyright Works?: The Illogic of Bridgeport v. Dimension Films, 53 J. Copyright Soc’y 619 (2006)

Pelletier, Sampling the Circuits: The Case for a New Comprehensive Scheme for Determining Copyright Infringement as a Result of Music Sampling, 89 Wash. U. L. Rev. 1161 (2012)

Perritt, New Architectures for Music: Law Should Get Out of the Way, 29 Hastings Comm. & Ent. L.J. 259 (2007)

Schultz, Live Performance, Copyright, and the Future of the Music Business, 43 U. Rich. L. Rev. 685 (2009)

Rogoyski, The Melody Machine: How to Kill Copyright and Other Problems with Protecting Discrete Musical Elements, 88 J. Pat. & Trademark Off. Soc’y 347 & 403 (2006)

Self, Digital Sampling: A Cultural Perspective, 9 UCLA Ent. L. Rev. 247 (2002)

Zooesch, “Discontented Blues”: Jazz Arrangements and the Case for Improvements in Copyright Law, 55 Cath. U. L. Rev. 867 (2006)

Dramatic Works, and Pantomimes & Choreographic Works

Abitabile & Picerno, Dance and the Choreographer’s Dilemma: A Legal and Cultural Perspective on Copyright Protection for Choreographic Works, 27 Campbell L. Rev. 39 (2004)

Cramer, Copyright Protection for Choreography: Can it Ever be “En Pointe”?, 1 Syracuse J. Legis. & Pol’y 145 (1995)

de Quintana, The Balancing Act: How Copyright and Customary Practices Protect Large Dance Companies Over Pioneering Choreographers, 11 Vill. Sports & Ent. L.J. 139 (2004)

Fisher, The Copyright in Choreographic Works: A Technical Analysis of the Copyright Act of 1976, 31 Copyright L. Symp. (ASCAP) 145 (1984)

Hilgard, Can Choreography & Copyright Waltz Together in the Wake of Horgan v. MacMillan?, 27 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 757 (1994)

Lakes, A pas de deux for Choreography and Copyright, 80 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 1829 (2005)

Picart, A Tango Between Copyright and Choreography: Whiteness as Status Property in Balanchine’s Ballets, Fuller’s Serpentine Dance, and Graham’s Modern Dances, 18 Cardozo J. L. & Gender 685 (2012)

Varmer, Copyright in Choreographic Works, Copyright Office Study No. 28 (1960)

Wise, Copyright Battles over Yoga’s 5000-year-old Tradition, 22 Ent. & Sports Law 18 (2005)

Yellin, New Directions for Copyright: The Property Rights of Stage Directors, 24 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 317 (2001)

Pictorial, Graphic & Sculptural Works

Brown, Copyright-like Protection for Designs, 19 U. Balt. L. Rev. 308 (1989)

Brown, Design Protection: An Overview, 34 UCLA L. Rev. 1341 (1987)

Bruce: In the Language of the Pictures: How Copyright Law Fails to Adequately Account for Photography, 115 W. Va. L. Rev. 93 (2012)

Byron, As Long as There’s Another Way: Pivot Point v. Charlene Products as an Accidental Template for a Creativity-Driven Useful Articles Analysis, 49 IDEA 147 (2009)

Burgunder, Product Design Protection After Bonito Boats: Where It Belongs and How It Should Get There, 28 Am. Bus. L.J. 1 (1990)

Carpenter, Drawing a Line in the Sand: Copyright Law and New Museums, 13 Vand. J. Ent. & Tech. L. 463 (2011)

Collins, Patchwork Protection: Copyright Law and Quilted Art, 9 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 855 (2010)

Denicola, Applied Art and Industrial Design: A Suggested Approach to Copyright in Useful Articles, 67 Minn. L. Rev. 707 (1983)

Fryer, Industrial Design Protection in the United States of America-Present Situation and Plans for Revision, 70 J. Pat. & Trademark Off. Soc’y 820 (1988)

Goldenberg, The Long and Winding Road: A History of the Fight Over Industrial Design Protection in the United States, 45 J. Copyright Soc’y 21 (1997)

Hamilton, Art Speech, 49 Vand. L. Rev. 73 (1996)

Hamilton, Four Questions About Art, 13 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 119 (1994)

Lynch, Copyright in Utilitarian Objects: Beneath Metaphysics, 16 U. Dayton L. Rev. 647 (1991)

Manfredi, Haute Copyright: Tailoring Copyright Protection in High-Profile Fashion Designs, 21 Cardozo J. Int’l & Comp. L. 105 (2012)

Mirzaian, The Utility of Prettiness: Copyright Protection for Mardi Gras Indian Suits in the Era of the Useful Articles Doctrine, 59 J. Copyright Soc’y U.S.A. 747 (2012)

Oberman & Lloyd, Copyright Protection for Photographs in the Age of New Technologies, 2 B.U. J. Sci. & Tech. 10 (1996)

Perlmutter, Conceptual Separability and Copyright in the Design of Useful Articles, 37 J. Copyright Soc’y 339 (1990)

Polakovic, Should the Bauhaus Be in the Copyright Doghouse? Rethinking Conceptual Separability, 64 U. Colo. L. Rev. 871 (1993)

Reichman, Design Protection After the Copyright Act of 1976: A Comparative View of the Emerging Interim Models, 31 J. Copyright Soc’y 267 (1984)

Reichman, Design Protection and the Legislative Agenda, 55 Law & Contemp. Probs. 281 (1992)

Reichman, Design Protection and the New Technologies: The United States Experience in a Transnational Perspective, 19 U. Balt. L. Rev. 6 (1990)

Reichman, Design Protection in Domestic and Foreign Copyright Law: From the Berne Revision of 1948 to the Copyright Act of 1976, 1983 Duke L.J. 1143

Saroff, Putting Intellectual Property Law on the Fairway: Toward an Expansion of Copyright Law to Golf Course Architecture, 28 Colum. J.L. & Arts 379 (2005)

Silver, A Bad Dream: In Search of a Legal Framework for Copyright Infringement Claims Involving Digital Imagery in Motion Pictures, 35 IDEA 407 (1995)

Sybert & Hulley, Copyright Protection for “Useful Articles,” 54 J. Copyright Soc’y 419 (2007)

Tushnet, Worth a Thousand Words, 125 Harv. L. Rev. 683 (2012)

VerSteeg, Jurimetric Copyright: Future Shock for the Visual Arts, 13 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 125 (1994)

Ward, Copyrighting Context: Law for Plumbing’s Sake, 17 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 159 (1993)

Whicher, Originality, Cartography and Copyright, 38 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 280 (1963)

Wolf, Is There Any Copyright Protection for Maps After Feist?, 39 J. Copyright Soc’y 224 (1992)

Wolf, New Landscape in the Copyright Protection for Maps: Mason v. Montgomery Data, Inc., 40 J. Copyright Soc’y 401 (1993)

Architectural Works

Ginsburg, Copyright in the 101st Congress: Commentary on the Visual Artists’ Rights Act and the Architectural Works Copyright Protection Act of 1990, 14 Colum.-VLA J.L. & the Arts 477 (1990)

Hancks, Copyright Protection for Architectural Design: A Conceptual and Practical Criticism, 71 Wash. L. Rev. 177 (1996)

Newsam, Architecture & Copyright — Separating the Poetic from the Prosaic, 71 Tul. L. Rev. 1073 (1997)

Pollock, The Architectural Works Copyright Protection Act: Analysis of Probable Ramifications and Arising Issues, 70 Neb. L. Rev. 873 (1991)

Roberts, There Goes My Baby: Buildings as Intellectual Property Under the Architectural Works Copyright Protection Act, 21 Construction Law. 22 (Spr. 2001)

Scaglione, Building upon the Architectural Works Protection Copyright Act of 1990, 61 Fordham L. Rev. 193 (1992)

Shipley, Copyright Protection for Architectural Works, 37 S.C. L. Rev. 393 (1986)

Shipley, The Architectural Works Copyright Protection Act at Twenty: Has Full Protection Made a Difference?, 18 J. Intell. Prop. 1 (2010)

Thiel, The Architectural Works Copyright Protection Gesture of 1990, or, “Hey, That Looks Like My Building,” 7 DePaul-LCA J. Art & Ent. L. 1 (1996)

Derivative Works

Abramowicz, A Theory of Copyright’s Derivative Right and Related Doctrines, 90 Minn. L. Rev. 317 (2005)

Blaise, Game Over: Issues Arising When a Copyright Work Is Licensed to Video Game Manufacturers, 15 Alb. J.L. Sci. & Tech. 517 (2005)

Boyd, Deriving Originality in Derivative Works: Considering the Quantum of Originality Needed to Attain Copyright Protection in a Derivative Work, 40 Santa Clara L. Rev. 325 (1999)

Brandstetter, The Lone Ranger: Have the Courts Unfairly Singled Out Musical Arrangements by Denying Them Protection as Derivative Works?, 15 SPG Ent. & Sports Law. 1 (1997)

Comment, Copyright and the Musical Arrangement: An Analysis of the Law and Problems Pertaining to This Specialized Form of Derivative Work, 7 Pepperdine L. Rev. 125 (1979)

Durham, Consumer Modification of Copyrighted Works, 81 Ind. L.J. 851 (2006)

Goldstein, Derivative Rights and Derivative Works in Copyright, 30 J. Copyright Soc’y 209 (1982)

Loren, The Changing Nature of Derivative Works in the Face of New Technologies, 4 J. Small & Emerging Bus. L. 57 (2000)

Mtima, So Dark the Con(tu) of Man: The Quest for a Software Derivative Work Right in Section 117, 70 U. Pitt. L. Rev. 1 (2008)

Lunney, Copyright, Derivative Works, and the Economics of Complements, 12 Vand. J. Ent. & Tech. L. 779 (2010)

Newman, Holden Caulfield Grow Up: Salinger v. Colting, the Promotion-of-Progress Requirement, and Market Failure in a Derivative-Works Regime, 96 Iowa L. Rev. 737 (2010)

Ochoa, Copyright, Derivative Works and Fixation: Is Galoob a Mirage, or Does the Form(Gen) of the Alleged Derivative Work Matter?, 20 Santa Clara Computer & High Tech. L.J. 991 (2004)

Olin, “Recoding” and the Derivative Works Entitlement: Addressing the First Amendment Challenge, 119 Harv. L. Rev. 1488 (2006)

Ostertag, The Use of Derivative Works After Copyright Termination — Does Woods v. Bourne Expose a Quagmire?, 43 J. Copyright Soc’y 28 (1995)

Page, The Works: Distinguishing Derivative Creations Under Copyright, 5 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 415 (1986)

Prater, When Museums Act Like Gift Shops: The Discordant Derivative Works Exception to the Termination Clause, 17 Loy. L.A. Ent. L.J. 97 (1996)

Y’Barbo, Aesthetic Ambition Versus Commercial Appeal: Adapting Novels to Film and the Copyright Law, 10 St. Thomas L. Rev. 299 (1998)

Compilations

J. Baumgarten, Fact and Data Protection After Feist (1991)

R. Nimmer, The Law of Computer Technology: Rights, Licenses, Liabilities (2013)

Register of Copyrights, Report on Legal Protection for Databases (1997)

Aplin, The EU Database Right: Recent Developments, Intell. Prop. Q. 52 (Winter 2005)

Arden, The Conflicting Treatments of Compilations of Facts under the United States and British Copyright Laws, 19 AIPLA Q.J. 267 (1991)

Band & Kono, The Database Protection Debate in the 106th Congress, 62 Ohio. St. L.J. 869 (2001)

Baran, Back to the Future: Learning from the Past in the Database Debate, 62 Ohio St. L.J. 879 (2001)

Benkler, The Role of Judicial Review in the Creation and Definition of Private Rights in Information, 15 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 535 (2000)

Bolitho, When Fantasy Meets the Courtroom: An Examination of the Intellectual Property Issues Surrounding the Burgeoning Fantasy Sports Industry, 67 Ohio St. J. 911 (2006)

Cate, The EU Data Protection Directive, Information Privacy, and the Public Interest, 80 Iowa L. Rev. 431 (1995)

Denicola, Copyright in Collections of Facts: A Theory for the Protection of Nonfiction Literary Works, 81 Colum. L. Rev. 516 (1981)

Dreyfuss, A Wiseguy’s Approach to Information Products: Muscling Copyright and Patent into a Unitary Theory of Intellectual Property, 1992 Sup. Ct. Rev. 195

Edwards, Has the Dreaded Data Doomsday Arrived? Past, Present, and Future Effects of the European Union’s Database Directive on Database and Information Availability in the European Union, 39 Ga. L. Rev. 215 (2004)

Gervais, The Protection of Databases, 82 Chi.-Kent L. Rev. 1109 (2007)

Ginsburg, A Marriage of Convenience? A Comment on ‘The Protection of Databases’, 82 Chi.-Kent L. Rev. 1171 (2007)

Ginsburg, Copyright, Common Law, and Sui Generis Protection of Databases in the United States and Abroad, 66 U. Cin. L. Rev. 151 (1997)

Ginsburg, Creation and Commercial Value: Copyright Protection of Works of Information, 90 Colum. L. Rev. 1865 (1990)

Ginsburg, Domestic and International Copyright Issues Implicated in the Compilation of a Multimedia Product, 25 Seton Hall L. Rev. 1397 (1995)

Ginsburg, No “Sweat”? Copyright and Other Protection of Works of Information After Feist v. Rural Telephone, 92 Colum. L. Rev. 338 (1992)

Gordon, Reality as Artifact: From Feist to Fair Use, 55 Law & Contemp. Probs. 93 (1992)

Gorman, Copyright Protection for the Collection and Representation of Facts, 76 Harv. L. Rev. 1569 (1963)

Gorman, The Feist Case: Reflections on a Pathbreaking Copyright Decision, 18 Rutgers Computer & Tech. L.J. 731 (1992)

Grosheide, Database Protection — The European Way, 8 Wash. U. J.L. & Pol’y 39 (2002)

Hamilton, Justice O’Connor’s Opinion in Feist Pub., Inc. v. Rural Telephone Service Co.: An Uncommon Though Characteristic Approach, 38 J. Copyright Soc’y 83 (1990)

Heald, The Extraction/Duplication Dichotomy: Constitutional Line-Drawing in the Database Debate, 62 Ohio St. L.J. 933 (2001)

Heald, The Vices of Originality, 1991 Sup. Ct. Rev. 143

Hughes, Created Facts and the Flawed Ontology of Copyright Law, 83 Notre Dame L. Rev. 43 (2007)

Hughes, How Extra-Copyright Protection of Databases Can Be Constitutional, 28 Dayton L. Rev. 159 (2002)

Karjala, Copyright in Electronic Maps, 35 Jurimetrics J. 395 (1995)

Kon, BHI/William Hill: Europe’s Feist: Court of Appeal Confirmation Establishes Bright Lines, 28 E.I.P.R. 60 (2006)

Lipton, Balancing Private Rights and Public Policies: Reconceptualizing Property in Databases, 18 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 773 (2003)

Litman, After Feist, 17 U. Dayton L. Rev. 607 (1992)

McManis, Comparative Perspectives: Database Protection in the Digital Information Age, 7 Roger Williams U.L. Rev. 7 (2001)

Mitten, The Fantasy of Player Statistics Ownership: A Triple Play for the Public Domain: Delaware Lottery to Motorola to C.B.C, 11 Chap. L. Rev. 569 (2008)

Patterson & Joyce, Monopolizing the Law : The Scope of Copyright Protection for Law Reports and Statutory Compilations, 36 UCLA L. Rev. 719 (1989)

Patry, Copyright in Collections of Facts: A Reply, 6 Comm. & The Law 11 (1984)

Perlmutter, The Scope of Copyright in Telephone Directories: Keeping Listing Information in the Public Domain, 38 J. Copyright Soc’y 1 (1990)

Pollack, The Right to Know?: Delimiting Database Protection at the Juncture of the Commerce Clause, the Intellectual Property Clause and the First Amendment, 17 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 47 (1999)

Raskind, Assessing the Impact of Feist, 17 U. Dayton L. Rev. 331 (1992)

Reichman, Electronic Information Tools — The Outer Edge of World Intellectual Property Law, 17 U. Dayton L. Rev. 797 (1992)

Reichman & Okediji, When Copyright Law and Science Collide: Empowering Digitally Integrated Research Methods on a Global Scale, 96 Minn. L. Rev. 1362 (2012)

Reichman & Samuelson, Intellectual Property Rights in Data?, 50 Vand. L. Rev. 49 (1997)

Reichman & Uhlir, A Contractually Reconstructed Research Commons for Scientific Data in a Highly Protectionist Intellectual Property Environment, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 315 (2003)

Reichman & Uhlir, Database Protection at the Crossroads: Recent Developments and Their Impact on Science and Technology, 14 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 793 (1999)

Shipley, Thin But Not Anorexic: Copyright Protection for Compilations and Other Fact Works, 15 J. Intell. Prop. L. 91 (2007)

Symposium: Copyright Protection for Computer Databases, CD-ROMs and Factual Compilations, 17 U. Dayton L. Rev. 323-629, 731-1018 (1992)

Wei, Telephone Directories and Databases: The Policy at the Helm of Copyright Law and a Tale of Two Cities, Intell. Prop. Q. 316 (Summer 2004)

Wood, Copyrighting the Yellow Pages: Finding Originality in Factual Compilations, 78 Minn. L. Rev. 1319 (1994)

Yen, The Danger of Bootstrap Formalism in Copyright, 5 J. Intell. Prop. L. 453 (1998)

Yen, The Legacy of Feist: Consequences of the Weak Connection Between Copyright and the Economics of Public Goods, 52 Ohio St. L.J. 1343 (1991)

Yen, A Preliminary First Amendment Analysis of Legislation Treating News Aggregation as Copyright Infringement, 12 Vand. J. Ent. & Tech. L. 947 (2010)

Chapter 4

OWNERSHIP AND TRANSFERS

Reference Works

H. Abrams, The Law of Copyright §§ 4.1 to 4.48, 10.67 to 10.73 (2013)

P. Goldstein, Goldstein on Copyright §§ 4.1 to 4.3, 5.0 to 5.3, 18.5 (2013)

M. Leaffer, Understanding Copyright Law §§ 5.01 to 5.15 (5th ed. 2010)

M. Nimmer & D. Nimmer, Nimmer on Copyright §§ 5.01 to 5.04, 6.01 to 6.12, 6A.01 to 6A.05, 7.25, 10.01 to 10.15 (2013)

W. Patry, Patry on Copyright §§ 5:1 to 5:157 (2013)

Initial Ownership

C. McSherry, Who Owns Academic Work?: Battling for Control of Intellectual Property (2001)

Angel & Tannenbaum, Works for Hire Under S. 22, N.Y.L. Sch. L. Rev. 209 (1976)

Braveman, Duet of Disconent: Martha Graham and Her Non-Profit Battle Over Work for Hire, 15 Loy. L.A. Ent. L. Rev. 471 (2005)

Brophy, Joint Authorship Under the Copyright Law, 16 Hastings Comm. & Ent. L.J. 451 (1994)

Cary, Joint Ownership of Copyright, Copyright Law Revision Study No. 12 (1958)

Chon, New Wine Bursting from Old Bottles: Collaborative Internet Art, Joint Works, and Entrepreneurship, 75 Or. L. Rev. 257 (1996)

Christy, Stone Dead: Joint Authorship Battle Takes Centre Stage (United Kingdom), 142 Copyright World 17 (July 2004)

Ciolino, How Copyrights Became Community Property (Sort Of): Through the Rodrigue v. Rodrigue Looking Glass, 47 Loy. L. Rev. 631 (2001)

Ciolino, Why Copyrights Are Not Community Property, 60 La. L. Rev. 127 (1999)

Cochran, It Takes Two to Tango!: Problems with Community Property Ownership of Copyrights and Patents in Texas, 58 Baylor L.J. 407 (2006)

Dougherty, Not a Spike Lee Joint? Issues in the Authorship of Motion Pictures Under U.S. Copyright Law, 49 UCLA L. Rev. 225 (2001)

Dreyfuss, Collaborative Research: Conflicts on Authorship, Ownership, and Accountability, 53 Vand. L. Rev. 1162 (2000)

Dreyfuss, The Creative Employee and the Copyright Act of 1976, 54 U. Chi. L. Rev. 590 (1987)

Field, From Custom to Law in Copyright, 49 IDEA 125 (2008)

Garon & Ziff, The Work-Made-for-Hire Doctrine Revisited: Startup and Technology Employees and the Use of Contracts in a Hiring Relationship, 12 Minn. J.L. Sci. & Tech. 489 (2011)

Gasaway, Copyright Ownership & the Impact on Academic Libraries, 13 DePaul-LCA J. Art & Ent. L. 277 (2003)

Gibbons, Love’s Labors Lost: Marry for Love, Copyright Work Made-for-Hire, and Alienate at Your Leisure, 102 Ky. L.J. 223 (2012)

Ginsburg, Copyright Without Borders? Choice of Forum and Choice of Law for Copyright Infringement in Cyberspace, 15 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 153 (1997)

Gleik, Who Owns What in the Digital World?, 53 Case W. Res. 659 (2003)

Gordon, Essay: Fine-Tuning Tasini: Privileges of Electronic Distribution and Reproduction, 66 Brooklyn L. Rev. 473 (2000)

Gorman, Copyright Conflicts on the University Campus, 40 J. Copyright Soc’y 291 (2000)

Hamilton, Commissioned Works as Works Made for Hire Under the 1976 Copyright Act: Misinterpretation and Injustice, 135 U. Pa. L. Rev. 1281 (1987)

Hardy, Copyright Law’s Concept of Employment & What Congress Really Intended, 35 J. Copyright Soc’y 210 (1988)

Hubbard, Family Feud in the Entertainment Industry: Section 304(a) of the Copyright Act and Its Impact on Estate Distribution, 21 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 407 (2003)

Hudis, Software “Made for Hire”: Make Sure It’s Really Yours, 44 J. Copyright Soc’y 8 (1996)

Hutchinson, Can the Federal Courts Save Rock Music?: Why a Default Joint Authorship Rule Should Be Adopted to Protect Co-Authors Under United States Copyright Law, 5 Tul. J. Tech. & Intell. Prop. 77 (2003)

Hyde & Hager, Promoting the Copyright Act’s Creator-Favoring Presumption: “Works Made For Hire” Under Aymes v. Bonelli & Avtec Systems, Inc. v. Pfeiffer, 71 Denv. U.L. Rev. 693 (1994)

Jacob, Tort Made for Hire — Reconsidering the CCNV Case, 11 Yale J. L. & Tech. 96 (2009)

Jaffe, Defusing the Time Bomb Once Again — Determining Authorship in a Sound Recording, 53 J. Copyright Soc’y 139 (2005)

Johnson, Reconciling Copyright Ownership Policies for Faculty-Authors in Distance Education, 33 J.L. & Educ. 431 (2004)

Karlan, Joint Ownership of Moral Rights, 38 J. Copyright Soc’y 242 (1991)

Karp, ed., Work Made for Hire — Practical Perspectives: A Roundtable Discussion, 14 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 507 (1990)

Kernochan, Ownership and Control of Intellectual Property Rights in Audiovisual Works: Contracts and Practice, 20 Colum.-VLA J. L. & Arts 359 (1996)

Kim, Martha Graham, Professor Miller and the “Work for Hire” Doctrine: Undoing the Judicial Bind Created by the Legislature, 13 J. Intell. Prop. L. 337 (2006)

Kreiss, Scope of Employment and Being an Employee Under the Work-Made-For-Hire Provision of the Copyright Law: Applying the Common-Law Agency Tests, 40 Kan. L. Rev. 119 (1991)

Kwall, “Author-Stories”: Narrative’s Implications for Moral Rights and Copyright’s Joint Authorship Doctrine, 75 S. Cal. L. Rev. 1 (2001)

Kwall, Copyright Issues in Online Courses: Ownership, Authorship and Conflict, 18 Computer & High Tech. L.J. 1 (2001)

LaFrance, Authorship, Dominance, and the Captive Collaborator: Preserving the Rights of Joint Authors, 50 Emory L.J. 193 (2001)

Lape, A Narrow View of Creative Cooperation: The Current State of the Joint Work Doctrine, 61 Alb. L. Rev. 43 (1997)

Lape, Ownership of Copyrightable Works of University Professors: The Interplay Between the Copyright Act and University Copyright Policies, 37 Vill. L. Rev. 223 (1992)

Meurer, Too Many Markets or Too Few? Copyright Policy Toward Shared Works, 77 So. Cal. L. Rev. 903 (2004)

Miller, Photography and the Work For Hire Doctrine, 1 Tex. Wesleyan L. Rev. 81 (1994)

Nevin, No Business Like Business: Copyright Law, the Theater Industry, and the Dilemma of Rewarding Collaboration, 53 Emory L.J. 1533 (2004)

Nevins, To Split or Not to Split: Judicial Divisibility of the Copyright Interests of Authors and Others, 40 Fam. L.Q. 499 (2006)

D. Nimmer, Menell & McGimsey, Preexisting Confusion in Copyright’s Work-for-Hire Doctrine, 50 J. Copyright Soc’y 399 (2003)

Ochoa, Who Owns an Avatar? Copyright, Creativity, and Virtual Worlds, 14 Vand. J. Ent. & Tech. L. 959 (2012)

Okamoto, Musical Sound Recordings as Works Made For Hire: Money For Nothing and Tracks For Free, 37 U.S.F. L. Rev. 783 (2003)

Packard, Copyright or Copy Wrong: An Analysis of University Claims to Faculty Work, 7 Comm. L. & Pol’y 275 (2002)

Perwin, Drafting “Work for Hire” Agreements After Community for Creative Non-Violence v. Reid, 14 Nova L. Rev. 459 (1990)

Reichman, Overlapping Proprietary Rights in University-Generated Research Products: The Case of Computer Programs, 1992 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 51 (1992)

Richardson, The Art of Making Art: A Narrative of Collaboration in American Theatre and a Response to Calls for Change to the Copyright Act of 1976, 42 Cumb. L. Rev. 489 (2012)

Rothstein, Unilateral Settlements and Retroactive Transfers: A Problem of Copyright Co-Ownership, 157 U. Pa. L. Rev. 881 (2009)

Roussel, The Copyright of Salaried and Employed Authors: A Comparative Study of National Laws, 26 Copyright 221 (1990)

Samuelson, Allocating Ownership Rights in Computer-Generated Works, 47 U. Pitt. L. Rev. 1185 (1986)

Samuelson, Some New Kinds of Authorship Made Possible by Computers and Some Intellectual Property Questions They Raise, 53 U. Pitt. L. Rev. 685 (1993)

Saville, Peter Pan’s Rights — “To Die Will Be an Awfully Big Adventure,” 51 J. Copyright Soc’y 1 (2004)

Scully, The Virtual Professorship: Intellectual Property Ownership of Academic Work in a Digital Era, 35 McGeorge L. Rev. 227 (2004)

Spyke, The Joint Works Dilemma: The Copyrightable Contribution Requirement and Co-Ownership Principles, 40 J. Copyright Soc’y 463 (1993)

Varmer, Works Made for Hire and on Commission, Copyright Law Revision Study No. 13 (1960)

VerSteeg, Copyright and the Educational Process: The Right of Teacher Inception, 75 Iowa L. Rev. 381 (1990)

VerSteeg, Intent, Originality, Creativity and Joint Authorship, 8 Brook. L. Rev. 123 (2002)

Transfer and Recordation

Afori, Implied License: An Emerging New Standard in Copyright Law, 25 Santa Clara Computer & High Tech. L.J. 275 (2008)

Bartow, Intellectual Property and Domestic Relations: Issues to Consider When There Is An Artist, Author, Inventor, or Celebrity in the Family, 35 Fam. L.Q. 383 (2001)

Bramson, Intellectual Property as Collateral: Patent, Trade Secrets, Trademarks and Copyrights, 36 Bus. Law. 1567 (1981)

Brylawski, The Role of Copyright in Acquisitions and Security Transactions, 22 Beverly Hills B.A.J. 88 (1988)

Byrnes, Copyright Licenses, New Technology and Default Rules: Converging Media, Diverging Courts?, 20 Loy. L.A. Ent. L. Rev. 243 (2000)

Cross, Restoring the Public Library Ethos: Copyright, e-Licensing, and the Future of Librarianship, 104 L. Libr. J. 313 (2012)

Curtis, Protecting Authors in Copyright Transfers: Revision Bill and the Alternatives, 72 Colum. L. Rev. 799 (1972)

Goldstein, Preempted State Doctrines, Involuntary Transfers and Compulsory Licenses: Testing the Limits of Copyright, 24 UCLA L. Rev. 1107 (1977)

Haemmerli, Insecurity Interests: Where Intellectual Property and Commercial Law Collide, 96 Colum. L. Rev. 1645 (1996)

Huff, In re World Auxiliary Power Company: A Look at Federal Preemption of State Law in the Perfection of Security Interests in Registered and Unregistered Copyrights, 56 Ala. L. Rev. 917 (2005)

Jaszi, Tasini and Beyond, 23 Eur. Intell. Prop. L. Rev. 595 (2001)

Kaminstein, Divisibility of Copyrights, Copyright Law Revision Study No. 11 (1960)

Kreiss, The “In Writing” Requirement for Copyright and Patent Transfers: Are the Circuits in Conflict?, 26 Dayton L. Rev. 43 (2000)

Lange, A Comment on New York Times v. Tasini, 53 Case W. Res. 653 (2003)

Latman, Recordation of Copyright Assignments and Licenses, Copyright Law Revision Study No. 19 (1958)

Loren, Untangling the Web of Music Copyrights, 53 Case W. Res. 673 (2003)

Mtima, Tasini and Its Progeny: The New Exclusive Right of Fair Use on the Electronic Publishing Frontier, 14 Fordham Intell. Prop. Media & Ent. L.J. 369 (2004)

Nevine, When an Author’s Marriage Dies: The Copyright-Divorce Connection, 37 J. Copyright Soc’y 382 (1990)

Newman, A License Is Not a “Contract Not to Sue”: Disentangling Property and Contract in the Law of Copyright Licenses, 98 Iowa L. Rev. 1144 (2013)

D. Nimmer, Adams and Bits: Of Jewish Kings and Copyrights, 71 S. Cal. L. Rev. 219 (1998)

R. Nimmer, An Update on Financing With Intellectual Property as Collateral: Parts I and II, 10 J. Proprietary Rts. 2 (1997) & 11 J. Proprietary Rts. 10 (1997)

Norgaard & Garcia, The Ninth Circuit’s Decisions in Foad v. Musil Govan Azzalino and Gardner v. Nike, Inc.: The Creation, Interpretation and Assignment of Copyright Licenses Under State and Federal Law, 33 S.W.U. L. Rev. 347 (2004)

O’Rourke, Bargaining in the Shadow of Copyright Law After Tasini, Case W. Res. 605 (2003)

Polacheck, The “Un-Worth-y” Decision: The Characterization of a Copyright as Community Property, 17 Hastings Comm. & Ent. L.J. 601 (1995)

Slavitt, Fixation of Derivative Works in a Tangible Medium: Technology Forces a Reexamination, 46 IDEA 37 (2005)

Smith, General Intangible or Commercial Tort: Moral Rights and State-Based Intellectual Property as Collateral Under U.C.C. Revised Article 9, 22 Emory Banr. Dev. J. 95 (2005)

Trefethen, Copyright as Community Property, 11 J. Contemp. Legal Issues 256 (2000)

VerSteeg, Copyright and the Educational Process: The Right of Teacher Inception, 75 Iowa L. Rev. 381 (1990)

Victoroff, The Other Curse of the Werewolf: Interpreting Copyright Transfers Under U.S. and English Law, 17 Whittier L. Rev. 215 (1995)

Ward, The Perfection and Priority Rules for Security Interests in Copyrights, Patents, and Trademarks: The Current Structural Dissonance and Proposed Legislative Cures, 53 Me. L. Rev. 391 (2001)

Chapter 5

DURATION AND TERMINATIONS

Reference Works

H. Abrams, The Law of Copyright §§ 7.1 to 7.57, 11.1 to 11.62, 12.1 to 12.51 (2013)

P. Goldstein, Goldstein on Copyright §§ 5.4 to 5.6, 6.0 to 6.3 (2013)

M. Leaffer, Understanding Copyright Law §§ 6.01 to 6.19 (5th ed. 2010)

M. Nimmer & D. Nimmer, Nimmer on Copyright §§ 9.01 to 9.12, 9A.01 to 9A.07, 11.01 to 11.10 (2013)

W. Patry, Patry on Copyright §§ 7:1 to 7:63 (2013)

Duration and Renewal

Allen & Swift, Shattering Copyright Law: Will James Stewart’s Rear Window Become a Pain in the Glass?, 22 Pac. L.J. 1 (1990)

Bard & Kurlantzick, Copyright Duration at the Millennium, 40 J. Copyright Soc’y 13 (2000)

Birnhack, Copyright Law and Free Speech After Eldred v. Ashcroft, 76 S. Cal. L. Rev. 1275 (2003)

Bradford, Parody and Perception: Using Cognitive Research to Expand Fair Use in Copyright, 46 B.C. L. Rev. 705 (2005)

Bricker, Renewal and Extension of Copyright, 29 S. Cal. L. Rev. 23 (1955)

H. Brown & D. Miller, Copyright Term Extension: Sapping American Creativity, 44 J. Copyright Soc’y 94 (1996)

R. Brown, The Widening Gyre: Are Derivative Works Getting Out of Hand?, 3 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L. Rev. 1 (1984)

Brownlee, Recent Changes in the Duration of Copyright in the United States and European Union: Procedures and Policy, 6 Fordham Intell. Prop. Media & Ent. L.J. 579 (1996)

Chafee, Reflections on the Law of Copyright, 45 Colum. L. Rev. 503, 719 (1945)

Coenen & Heald, Means / Ends Analysis in Copyright Law: Eldred v. Ashcroft in One Act, 36 Loy. L.A. L. Rev. 99 (2002)

Colby, Helen Sousa Albert, Mary Baker Eddy, and Otto Harbach — The Road to a Copyright Term of Life Plus 50 Years, 6 Comm. & The Law 3 (1984)

Crews, Copyright Duration and the Progressive Degeneration of a Constitutional Doctrine, 55 Syracuse L. Rev. 189 (2005)

Davis, Extending Copyright and the Constitution: “Have I Stayed Too Long?”, 52 Fla. L. Rev. 989 (2000)

Epstein, The Dubious Constitutionality of the Copyright Term Extension Act, 36 Loy. L.A. L. Rev. 123 (2002)

E. Gard, Copyright Law v. Trade Policy: Understanding the Golan Battle Within the Tenth Circuit, 34 Colum. J.L. & Arts 131 (2011)

E. Gard, Unpublished Works in the Public Domain: The Opening of a New Frontier, 54 J. Copyright Soc’y 439 (2007)

W. Gard & E. Gard, The Present (User-Generated Crisis) is the Past (1909 Copyright Act): An Essay Theorizing the “Traditional Contours of Copyright,” 28 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L. J. (2011)

Gordon, Authors, Publishers, and Public Goods: Trading Gold for Dross, 36 Loy. L.A. L. Rev. 159 (2002)

Hamilton, Copyright Duration Extension and the Dark Heart of Copyright, 14 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 655 (1996)

Hart & Kaufman, An Overview of the Copyright Renewal Amendment and Its Impact on Renewal Practices Under U.S. Law, 17 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 311 (1994)

Hartnick, Stanley Rothenberg, Final Thoughts on the Dickens Provision, 54 J. Copyright Soc’y 565 (2007)

Heald & Sherry, Implied Limits on the Legislative Power: The Intellectual Property Clause as an Absolute Constraint on Congress, 2000 U. Ill. L. Rev. 1119 (2000)

Hughes, Jurisprudential Vertigo: The Supreme Court’s View of “Rear Window” Is for the Birds, 60 Miss. L.J. 239 (1990)

Jaszi, When Works Collide: Derivative Motion Pictures, Underlying Rights, and the Public Interest, 28 UCLA L. Rev. 715 (1981)

Karjala, Comment of U.S. Law Professors on the Copyright Office Term of Protection Study, 12 Eur. Intell. Prop. Rev. 531 (1994)

Karjala, Judicial Review of Copyright Term Extension Legislation, 36 Loy. L.A. L. Rev. 199 (2002)

Karjala, Congestion Externalities and Extended Copyright Protection, 94 Geo. L.J. 1065 (2006)

Kreiss, Abandoning Copyrights to Try to Cut Off Termination Rights, 58 Mo. L. Rev. 85 (1993)

Kupferman, Renewal of Copyright: Section 23 of the Copyright Act of 1909, 44 Colum. L. Rev. 712 (1944)

Landes & Posner, Indefinitely Renewable Copyright, 70 U. Chi. L. Rev. (2003)

Ledford, The Dream that Never Dies: Eldred v. Ashcroft, the Author, and the Search for Perpetual Copyright, 84 Or. L. Rev. 665 (2005)

Lee, Eldred v. Ashcroft and the (Hypothetical) Copyright Term Extension Act of 2020, 12 Tex. Intell. Prop. L.J. 1 (2003)

Leval & Liman, Are Copyrights for Authors or Their Children?, 39 J. Copyright Soc’y 1 (1991)

Liu, Copyright and Time: A Proposal, 101 Mich. L. Rev. 409 (2002)

Merges & Reynolds, The Proper Scope of the Copyright and Patent Power, 37 Harv. J. on Legis. 45 (2000)

Miller, Copyright Term Extension: Boon for American Creators and the American Economy, 45 J. Copyright Soc’y 319 (1998)

Mimms, Reversion and Derivative Works Under the Copyright Acts of 1909 and 1976, 25 N.Y.L. Sch. L. Rev. 595 (1980)

Mulligan & Schultz, Accessing the Law: Neglecting the National Memory: How Copyright Term Extensions Compromise the Development of Digital Archives, 4 J. App. Prac. & Process 451 (2002)

Nachbar, Intellectual Property and Constitutional Norms, 104 Colum. L. Rev. 272 (2004)

Nevins, Little Copyright Dispute on the Prairie: Unbumping the Will of Laura Ingalls Wilder, 44 St. Louis L.J. 919 (2000)

Nevins, The Magic Kingdom of Will Bumping: Where Estates Law and Copyright Law Collide, J. Copyright Soc’y 77 (1988)

D. Nimmer, Corcovado: Renewal’s Second Coming or False Messiah?, 1 UCLA Ent. L. Rev. 127 (1994)

D. Nimmer, Refracting the Window’s Light: Stewart v. Abend in Myth and in Fact, 39 J. Copyright Soc’y 18 (1991)

Noller, Darkness on the Edge of Town: How Entitlements Theory Can Shine a Light on Termination of Transfers in Sound Recordings, 46 Ga. L. Rev. 763 (2012)

Ochoa, Is the Public Domain Irrevocable?: An Introduction to Golan v. Holder, 64 Vand. L. Rev. En Banc 123 (2011)

Ochoa, Limits on the Duration of Copyright: Theories and Practice, in Parker, Harris & Steineck (eds.), Time: Limits and Constraints (2010)

Ochoa, Patent and Copyright Term Extension and the Constitution: A Historical Perspective, 49 J. Copyright Soc’y 19 (2001)

Patterson, Eldred v. Reno: An Example of the Law of Unintended Consequences, 8 J. Intell. Prop. L. 223 (2001)

Patterson, What’s Wrong with Eldred? An Essay on Copyright Jurisprudence, 10 J. Intell. Prop. L. 345 (2003)

Patry, The Copyright Term Extension Act of 1995: Or How Publishers Managed to Steal the Bread from Authors, 14 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 661 (1996)

Patry, The Failure of the American Copyright System: Protecting the Idle Rich, 72 Notre Dame L. Rev. 907 (1997)

Patry & Posner, Fair Use and Statutory Reform in the Wake of Eldred, 92 Cal. L. Rev. 1639 (2004)

Pollack, Dealing With Old Father William, or Moving From Constitutional Text to Constitutional Doctrine: Progress Clause Review of the Copyright Term Extension Act, 36 Loy L.A. L. Rev. 337 (2002)

Posner, How Long Should a Copyright Last?, 50 J. Copyright Soc’y 1 (2003)

Reese, Public but Private: Copyright’s New Unpublished Public Domain, 85 Tex. L. Rev. 485 (2007)

Reichman, An Evaluation of the Copyright Extension Act of 1995: The Duration of the Limits of Cultural Policy, 14 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 625 (1996)

Ricketson, The Copyright Term, 23 IIC 753 (1992)

Ringer, Renewal of Copyright, Copyright Law Revision Study No. 31 (1960)

Rosenbloum, Give Me Liberty & Give Me Death: The Conflict Between Copyright Law and Estates Law, 4 J. Intell. Prop. L. 163 (1996)

Samuelson, The Constitutional Law of Intellectual Property After Eldred, 50 J. Copyright Soc’y 547 (2003)

Schwartz & Treanor, Eldred and Lochner: Copyright Term Extension and Intellectual Property as Constitutional Property, 112 Yale L.J. 2331 (2003)

Segal, Zombie Copyrights: Copyright Restoration Under the New Section 104A of the Copyright Act, 13 Santa Clara Computer & High Tech. L.J. 71 (1997)

Shipley, Congressional Authority Over Intellectual Property Policy After Eldred v. Ashcroft: Deference, Empty Limitations, and Risks to the Public Domain, 70 Alb. L. Rev. 1255 (2007)

Tor & Oliar, Incentives to Create Under a “Lifetime-Plus-Years” Copyright Duration: Lessons From a Behavioral Economic Analysis for Eldred v. Ashcroft, 36 Loy. L.A. L. Rev. 437 (2002)

Symposium, The Constitutionality of Copyright Term Extension: How Long is Too Long?, 18 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 651 (2000)

Walterscheid, Musings on the Copyright Power: A Critique of Eldred v. Ashcroft, 14 Albany L.J. Sci. & Tech. 309 (2004)

Walterscheid, The Remarkable — and Irrational — Disparity Between the Patent Term and the Copyright Term, 83 J. Pat & Trademark Off. Soc’y 233 (2001)

Termination of Transfers

Abrams, Who’s Sorry Now? Termination Rights and the Derivative Works Exception, 62 U. Det. L. Rev. 181 (1985)

Armstrong, Shrinking the Commons: Termination of Copyright Licenses and Transfers for the Benefit of the Public, 47 Harv. J. Legis. 359 (2010)

Curtis, Caveat Emptor in Copyright: A Practical Guide to the Termination Provisions of the New Copyright Code, 25 Bull. Copyright Soc’y 19 (1977)

Curtis, Protecting Authors in Copyright Transfers: Revision Bill § 203 and the Alternatives, 72 Colum. L. Rev. 799 (1972)

Davis, The Screenwriter’s Indestructible Right to Terminate Her Assignment of Copyright: Once a Story Is “Pitched,” A Studio Can Never Obtain All Copyrights in the Story, 18 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 93 (2000)

Drisch & Fortnow, Termination of Copyrights in Sound Recordings: Is There a Leak in the Record Company Vaults?, 17 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 211 (1993)

Gould, Time’s Up: Copyright Termination, Work-For-Hire and the Recording Industry, 31 Colum. J.L. & Arts 91 (2007)

Kreiss, Abandoning Copyright to Try to Cut Off Termination Rights, 58 Mo. L. Rev. 85 (1993)

Loren, Renegotiating the Copyright Deal in the Shadow of the “Inalienable” Right to Terminate, 62 Fla. L. Rev. 1329 (2010)

Menell & D. Nimmer, Pooh-Poohing Copyright Law’s “Inalienable” Termination Right, 57 J. Copyright Soc’y 799 (2010)

M. Nimmer, Termination of Transfers Under the Copyright Act of 1976, 125 U. Pa. L. Rev. 947 (1977)

Scott, Oh Bother: Milne, Steinbeck, and an Emerging Circuit Split Over the Alienability of Copyright Termination Rights, 14 J. Intell. Prop. L. 357 (2007)

Chapter 6

PUBLICATION AND FORMALITIES

Reference Works

H. Abrams, The Law of Copyright §§ 8.8 to 8.47, 9.1 to 9.93, 10.1 to 10.66 (2013)

P. Goldstein, Goldstein on Copyright §§ 3.0 to 3.19 (2013)

M. Leaffer, Understanding Copyright Law §§ 4.01 to 4.17, 7.01 to 7.16 (5th ed. 2010)

M. Nimmer & D. Nimmer, Nimmer on Copyright §§ 4.01 to 4.13, 7.01 to 7.24, 7.26 to 7.28 (2013)

W. Patry, Patry on Copyright §§ 6:1 to 6:81 (2013)

Publication

Baumgarten & Meyer, Effects of U.S. Adherence to the Berne Convention, 3 World Intell. Prop. Rep. 73 (1989)

Brown, Publication and Preemption in Copyright Law: Elegiac Reflections on Goldstein v. California, 22 UCLA L. Rev. 1022 (1975)

Brylawski, Publication: Its Role in Copyright Matters, Both Past and Present, 31 J. Copyright Soc’y 507 (1984)

Cotter, Toward a Functional Definition of Publication in Copyright Law, 92 Minn. L. Rev. 1724 (2008)

Landau, Music: “Publication,” Musical Compositions, and the Copyright Act of 1909: Still Crazy After All These Years, 2 Vand. J. Ent. L. & Prac. 29 (2000)

Landes, Copyright Protection of Letters, Diaries, and Other Unpublished Works: An Economic Approach, 21 J. Legal Stud. 79 (1992)

M. Nimmer, Preface-The Old Copyright Act as a Part of the New Act, 22 N.Y.L. Sch. L. Rev. 471 (1977)

Formalities

R. Wedgeworth & B. Ringer, The Library of Congress Advisory Committee on Copyright Registration and Deposit: Report of the Co-Chairs (1993)

Abromats, Nondisclosure of Preexisting Works in Software Copyright Registrations: Inequitable Conduct in Need of a Remedy, 32 Jurimetrics J. 571 (1992)

Arden, The Questionable Utility of Copyright Notice: Statutory and Non Legal Incentives in the Post-Berne Era, 24 Loy. U. Chi. L.J. 259 (1993)

Cole, Of Copyright, Men, and a National Library, 28 Q.J. Libr. Cong. 114 (1971)

Crews, Legal Deposit in Four Countries: Laws and Library Services, 80 Law Libr. J. 551 (1988)

Doyle, Cary, McCannon & Ringer, Notice of Copyright, Copyright Law Revision Study No. 7 (1960)

Field, Billy-Bob Teeth Saves Porn Star: Copyright with Defective Work-for-Hire Registrations, 9 U.N.H. L. Rev. 409 (2011)

Fisher, Reserving All Rights Beyond Copyright: Non-Statutory Restrictive Notices, 37 J. Copyright Soc’y 249 (1987)

Gasaway, America’s Cultural Record: A Thing of the Past, 40 Hous. L. Rev. 643 (2003)

Geller, Copyright Protection in the Berne Union: Analyzing the Issues, 5 Intell. Prop. J. 1 (1989)

Gerhardt, Copyright Publication: An Empirical Study, 87 Notre Dame L. Rev. 135 (2011)

Ginsburg, The U.S. Experience with Mandatory Copyright Formalities: A Love/Hate Relationship, 33 Colum. J. L & Arts 311 (2010)

Gibson, Once and Future Copyright, 81 Notre Dame L. Rev. 167 (2005)

Greenberg, More Than Just a Formality: Instant Authorship and Copyright’s Opt-Out Future in the Digital Age, 59 UCLA L. Rev. 1028 (2012)

Grubb, Status of Works Published in Violation of the Manufacturing Requirements of the 1909 Copyright Act After the Effective Date of the 1976 Copyright Law, 27 J. Copyright Soc’y (1980)

Haynie, So the Copyright Office Has Refused to Register Your Claim to Copyright-What Does It Mean and What Can You Do About It?, 21 AIPLA Q.J. 70 (1993)

Hurwitz, Omission of Copyright Notice Under Section 405(a): What Kind of Oxymoron Makes a Deliberate Error?, 60 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 956 (1985)

Jelaso, APA Abuse of Discretion Review as Applied to the Copyright Office: Is the Standard Meaningless?, 5 Am. U. Admin. L.J. 485 (1991)

Joyce, “A Curious Chapter in the History of Judicature”: Wheaton v. Peters and the Rest of the Story (of Copyright in the New Republic), 42 Hous. L. Rev. 325 (2005)

Joyce, The Rise of the Supreme Court Reporter: An Institutional Perspective on Marshall Court Ascendancy, 83 Mich. L. Rev. 1291 (1985)

Kaplan, The Registration of Copyright, Copyright Law Revision Study No. 17 (1960)

Karp, A Future Without Formalities, 13 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 521 (1995)

Levine, The End of Formalities: No More Second-Class Copyright Owners, 13 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 553 (1995)

Lyons, The Manufacturing Clause: A Legislative History, 29 J. Copyright Soc’y 8 (1981)

McLain, The Copyright Notice Requirement in the United States: A Proposed Amendment Concerning Deliberate Omissions of Notice, 18 Loy. L. A. L. Rev. 689 (1985)

Metalitz, Copyright Registration After Feist: New Rules and New Roles?, 17 U. Dayton L. Rev. 763 (1992)

Perlmutter, Freeing Copyright From Formalities, 13 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 565 (1995)

Peters, The Copyright Office and the Formal Requirements of Registration of Claims to Copyright, 17 U. Dayton L. Rev. 737 (1992)

Selkowitz, A Well-Kept Secret: Informal Adjudication in the Copyright Office — A Freedom of Information Act Violation?, 35 Admin. L. Rev. 133 (1983)

Sorkin, The Futility of a Future Without Formalities, 13 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 589 (1995)

Stim, The Reform of Notice Omission: Crumb v. A.A. Sales, Inc., 11 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 635 (1987)

Y’Barbo, On Section 411 of the Copyright Code and Determining the Proper Scope of a Copyright Registration, 34 San Diego L. Rev. 343 (1997)

The Copyright Office

Abrams, The Role of the Copyright Office: An Introduction, 13 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 27 (1994)

Field, Judicial Review of Copyright Examination, 44 IDEA 479 (2004)

Note, Separation of Powers—Appointments Clause—D.C. Circuit Holds Appointment of Copyright Royalty Judges by Librarian of Congress Violates Appointments Clause, 126 Harv. L. Rev. 834 (2013)

Samuelson, Will the Copyright Office Be Obsolete in the Twenty-First Century?, 13 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 55 (1994)

Schwartz, The Role of the Copyright Office in the Age of Information, 13 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 69 (1994)

Chapter 7

EXCLUSIVE RIGHTS AND THEIR LIMITATIONS

Reference Works

H. Abrams, The Law of Copyright §§ 5.1 to 5.424 (2013)

P. Goldstein, Goldstein on Copyright §§ 7.0 to 7.18, 17.23 to 17.24 (2013)

M. Leaffer, Understanding Copyright Law §§ 8.01 to 8.31, 8.38 to 8.39 (5th ed. 2010)

M. Nimmer & D. Nimmer, Nimmer on Copyright §§ 8.01 to 8.24, 8A.01 to 8A.12, 8B.01 to 8B.08, 8C.01 to 8C.05, 8D.01 to 8D.10, 8E.01 to 8E.05 (2013)

W. Patry, Patry on Copyright §§ 8:1 to 8:29, 11:1 to 11:49, 12:1 to 12:31, 13:1 to 13:54, 14:1 to 14:123, 15:1 to 15:18, 16:1 to 16:48, 16A:1 to 16A:5 (2013)

Overview

Abrams, Copyright’s First Compulsory License, 26 Santa Clara Computer & High Tech L.J. 215 (2010)

Cassler, Copyright Compulsory Licenses: Are They Coming or Going?, 37 J. Copyright Soc’y 231 (1990)

Françon, The Future of Copyright, 132 R.I.D.A. 2 (1987)

Goldstein, Preempted State Doctrines, Involuntary Transfers and Compulsory Licenses: Testing the Limits of Copyright, 24 UCLA L. Rev. 1107 (1977)

Kabat, Proposal for a Worldwide Internet Collecting Society: Mark Twain and Samuel Johnson Licenses, J. Copyright Soc’y (1998)

Kernochan, Practical Limitations on Authors’ Rights, 24 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 263 (2001)

Lim, Copyright Under Siege: An Economic Analysis of the Essential Facilities Doctrine and the Compulsory Licensing of Copyrighted Works, 17 Alb. L.J. Sci. & Tech. 481 (2007)

Madison, Social Software, Groups and Governance, 2006 Mich. St. L. Rev. 153 (2006)

Norek, “You Can’t Sing Without the Bling”: The Toll of Excessive Sample License Fees on Creativity in Hip-Hop Music and the Need for a Compulsory Sound Recording Sample License System, 11 UCLA Ent. L. Rev. 83 (2004)

Patterson, A Response to Mr. Y’Barbo’s Reply, 5 J. Intell. Prop. L. 235 (1997)

Patterson & Birch, Copyright and Free Speech, 4 J. Intell. Prop. L. 1 (1996)

Ringer, Copyright and the Future of Authorship, 101 Lib. L.J. 229 (1976)

Simon, In Search of (Maintaining) the Truth: The Use of Copyright by Religious Institutions, 16 Mich. Telecomm. & Tech. L.J. 355 (2010)

Tushnet, My Library: Copyright and the Role of Institutions in a Peer-to-Peer World, 53 U.C.L.A. L. Rev. 977 (2006)

Y’Barbo, On Legal Protection for Electronic Texts: A Reply to Professor Patterson and Judge Birch, 5 J. Intell. Prop. L. 195 (1997)

Exclusive Rights and Limitations in the Digital Age

Carver, Why License Agreements Do Not Control Copy Ownership: First Sales and Essential Copies, 25 Berkeley Tech. L. J. 1887 (2010)

Cate, The Technological Transformation of Copyright Law, 81 Iowa L. Rev. 1395 (1996)

J. Cohen, A Right to Read Anonymously: A Closer Look at “Copyright Management” in Cyberspace, 28 Conn. L. Rev. 981 (1996)

Ginsburg, Domestic and International Copyright Issues Implicated in the Compilation of a Multimedia Product, 25 Seton Hall L. Rev. 1397 (1995)

Harrison, Rules of the Road for the Information Superhighway: Electronic Communication and the Law, 35 Hous. Law. 58 (1997)

Hughes, On the Logic of Suing One’s Customers and the Dilemma of Infringement-Based Business Models, 22 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 725 (2005)

Jaszi, Caught in the Net of Copyright, 75 Or. L. Rev. 299 (1996)

M. Lemley, Dealing With Overlapping Copyrights on the Internet, 22 U. Dayton L. Rev. 547 (1997)

Litman, Reforming Information Law in Copyright’s Image, 22 Dayton L. Rev. 587 (1997)

D. Nimmer, Time and Space, 38 IDEA 501 (1998)

R. Nimmer, Copyright, First Sale, and the Overriding Role of Contract, 51 Santa Clara L. Rev. 1311 (2011)

Okediji, Trading Posts in Cyberspace: Information Markets and the Construction of Proprietary Rights, 44 B.C. L. Rev. 545 (2003)

Perzanowski & Schultz, Copyright Exhaustion and the Personal Use Dilemma, 96 Minn. L. Rev. 2067 (2012)

Reese, The First Sale Doctrine in the Era of Digital Networks, 44 B.C. L. Rev. 557 (2003)

Samuelson, Copyright and Freedom of Expression in Historical Perspective, 10 J. Intell. Prop. L. 345 (2003)

Van Houweling, Touching and Concerning Copyright: Real Property Reasoning in MDY Industries, Inc., v. Blizzard Entertainment, Inc., 51 Santa Clara L. Rev. 1063 (2011)

The Reproduction Right

Bernfeld, Free to Photocopy?: A Legislative History of Section 108, the Library Photocopying Provision of the Copyright Act of 1976, 25 Legal Reference Serv. Q. 1 (2006)

Bloom, Protecting Copyright Owners of Digital Music — No More Free Access to Cyber Tunes, 45 J. Copyright Soc’y 179 (1997)

Dutfield, TRIPS-Related Aspects of Traditional Knowledge, 33 Case West. Res. J. Int’l L. 233 (2001)

Gasaway, Amending the Copyright Act for Libraries and Society: The Section 108 Study Group, 70 Alb. L. Rev. 1331 (2007)

Geller, Reprography and Other Processes of Mass Use, 38 J. Copyright Soc’y 21 (1990)

Ginsburg, Reproduction of Protected Works for University Research or Teaching, 39 J. Copyright Soc’y 181 (1992)

Hardy, Computer “RAM” Copies: A Hit or a Myth? Historical Perspectives on Caching as a Microcosm of Current Copyright Concerns, 22 Dayton L. Rev. 423 (1997)

Reese, Copyright and Internet Music Transmissions: Existing Law, Major Controversies, Possible Solutions, 55 U. Miami L. Rev 237 (2001)

Rosenlund, Compulsory Licensing of Musical Compositions for Phonorecords Under the Copyright Act of 1976, 30 Hastings L.J. 683 (1979)

Yen, Entrepreneurship, Copyright, and Personal Home Pages, 75 Or. L. Rev. 331 (1996)

The Adaptation Right

Abramowicz, A Theory of Copyright’s Derivative Right and Related Doctrines, 38 Intell. Prop. L. Rev. 537 (2006)

Black & Page, Add-On Infringements: When Computer Add-Ons and Peripherals Should (and Should Not) Be Considered Infringing Derivative Works Under Lewis Galoob Toys Inc. v. Nintendo of America Inc. and Other Recent Decisions, 15 Hastings Comm. & Ent. L.J. 615 (1993)

Bohannon, Taming the Derivative Works Right: A Modest Proposal for Reducing Overbreadth and Vagueness in Copyright, 12 Vand. J. Ent. & Tech. L. 669 (2010)

A. Cohen, When Does a Work Infringe the Derivative Works Right of a Copyright Owner?, 17 Cardozo Arts & Ent L.J. 623 (1999)

Goldstein, Derivative Rights and Derivative Works in Copyright, 30 J. Copyright Soc’y 209 (1983)

Karjala, Harry Potter, Tanya Grotter, and the Copyright Derivative Work, 38 Ariz. St. L.J. 17 (2006)

Kreiss, Section 117 of the Copyright Act, [1991] BYU L. Rev. 1496

Lisby, Web Site Framing: Copyright Infringement Through the Creation of an Unauthorized Derivative Work, 6 Comm. L. & Pol’y 541 (2001)

Loren, The Changing Nature of Derivative Works in the Face of New Technologies, 4 J. Small & Emerging Bus. L. 57 (2000)

R. Nimmer & P. Krauthaus, Copyright and Software Technology Infringement: Defining Third Party Development Rights, 62 Ind. L.J. 13 (1986)

Ochoa, Copyright, Derivative Works and Fixation: Is Galoob a Mirage, or Does the Form(Gen) of the Alleged Derivative Work Matter?, 20 Santa Clara Computer & High Tech. L.J. 991 (2004)

Samuelson, Modifying Copyrighted Software: Adjusting Copyright Doctrine to Accommodate a Technology, 28 Jurimetrics J. 179 (1988)

Sanjek, “Don’t Have to DJ No More”: Sampling and the “Autonomous” Creator, 10 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 607 (1992)

Voegtli, Rethinking Derivative Rights, 63 Brooklyn L. Rev. 1213 (1997)

Wurzer, Infringement of the Exclusive Right to Prepare Derivative Works: Reducing Uncertainty, 73 Minn. L. Rev. 1521 (1989)

The Public Distribution Right

L. Pierredon-Fawcett & J. Kernochan, The Droit de Suite in Literary and Artistic Property: A Comparative Law Study (1991)

Alderman, Resale Royalties in the United States for Fine Visual Artists: An Alien Concept, 40 J. Copyright Soc’y 265 (1992)

Aplin, Contemplating Australia’s Digital Future, 23 Eur. Intell. Prop. L. Rev. 565 (2001)

Colby, The First Sale Doctrine: The Defense That Never Was?, 32 J. Copyright Soc’y 77 (1984)

Craig, “Lending” Institutions: The Impact of the E-Book on the American Library System, 2003 U. Ill. L. Rev. 1087

Delchin, Musical Copyright Law: Past, Present and Future of Online Music Distribution, 22 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 343 (2004)

Eichner, Game Over, Insert Coin to Continue: Entering a New Era of Video Game Intellectual Property Enforcement, 53 IDEA 101 (2013)

Gervais, Transmissions of Music on the Internet: An Analysis of the Copyright Laws of Canada, France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, 34 Vand. J. Transnat’l L. 1363 (2001)

Getzels, Importation of Out-Of-Print Works Under the Copyright Act of 1976, 10 Fordham Int’l L.J. 782 (1987)

Gordon, Essay: Fine-Tuning Tasini: Privileges of Electronic Distribution and Reproduction, 66 Brooklyn L. Rev. 473 (2000)

H. Hansen, Gray Market Goods: A Lighter Shade of Black, 13 Brooklyn J. Int’l L. 2459 (1987)

Horowitz, The Record Rental Amendment of 1984: A Case Study in the Effort to Adapt Copyright Law to New Technology, 12 Law & Arts 31 (1987)

Kasunic, Making Circumstantial Proof of Distribution Available, 18 Fordham Intell. Prop. Media & Ent. L.J. 1145 (2008)

Kernochan, The Distribution Right in the United States of America: Review and Reflections, 42 Vand. L. Rev. 107 (1989)

Kim, In Pursuit of Profit Maximization by Restricting Parallel Imports: The U.S. Copyright Owner and Taiwan Copyright Law, 5 Pac. Rim L. & Pol’y J. 205 (1995)

Laughlin, Digitization and Democracy: The Conflict Between the Amazon Kindle Licensing Agreement and the Role of Libraries in a Free Society, 40 U. Balt. L. Rev. 3 (2010)

Liebesman, Downstream Copyright Infringers, 60 Kan. L. Rev. 1 (2011)

Linford, A Second Look at the Right of First Publication, 58 J. Copyright Soc’y 585 (2011)

Lovern, Evaluating Resale Royalties for Used CDs, 4 Kan. J.L. & Pub. Pol’y 113 (1994)

Neumann, The Berne Convention and Droit de Suite Legislation in the United States: Domestic and International Consequences of Federal Incorporation of State Law for Treaty Implementation, 16 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 157 (1992)

Perlmutter, Resale Royalties for Artists: An Analysis of the Register of Copyrights’ Report, 40 J. Copyright Soc’y 284 (1992)

Price, Government Policy and Economic Security for the Artist: The Case of the Droit de Suite, 77 Yale L.J. 1333 (1968)

Rice, Licensing the Use of Computer Program Copies and the Copyright Act First Sale Doctrine, 30 Jurimetrics J. 157 (1990)

Rubin, Destined to Remain Grey: The Eternal Recurrence of Parallel Imports, 26 Int’l Law. 579 (1992)

Seemann, A Look at the Public Lending Right, 30 Copyright L. Symp. (ASCAP) 71 (1983)

Weil, Resale Royalties: Nobody Benefits, ARTNews at 58 (Mar. 1978)

The Public Performance Right

A. Kohn & B. Kohn, Kohn on Music Licensing (2010)

W. Krasilovsky, S. Shemel, J. Gross & J. Feinstein, This Business of Music: The Definitive Guide to the Music Industry (10th ed. 2007)

Bard & Kurlantzick, A Public Performance Right in Recordings: How to Alter the Copyright System Without Improving It, 43 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 152 (1974)

Bertrand, Performing Rights Societies: The Price Is Right “French-Style,” or the SACEM Cases, 3 Ent. L. Rev. 146 (1992)

Brenner & Kay, ABC v. Aereo: When is Internet Distribution a “Public Performance”?, 24 Intell. Prop. & Tech. L.J. 12 (2012)

Cantor, How Many Guests May Attend a Wedding Reception Before ASCAP Shows Up? Or, What are the Limits of the Definition of Perform “Publicly” Under 17 U.S.C. § 101?, 27 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 79 (2003)

Carroll, Copyright’s Creative Hierarchy in the Performing Arts, 14 Vand. J. Ent. & Tech. L. 797 (2012)

Cochran, Why Can’t I Watch This Video Here?: Copyright Confusion and Performances of Videocassettes and Videodiscs in Libraries, 15 Hastings Comm. & Ent. L.J. 837 (1993)

Crews, Distance Education and Copyright Law: The Limits and Meaning of Copyright Policy, 27 J.C. & U.L. 15 (2000)

Davis, Practice before the Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel in 17 USC § 111, 5 Vand. J. Ent. L. & Prac. 11 (2003)

Deutsch, Politics and Poker — Music Faces the Odds: A Ten-Year Retrospective, 34 J. Copyright Soc’y 38 (1986)

Disch, Compulsory Licensing of Blacked Out Professional Team Sporting Event Telecasts (PTSETS): Using Copyright Law to Mitigate Monopolistic Behavior, 32 Harv. J. on Legis. 403 (1995)

D’Onofrio, In Support of Performance Rights in Sound Recordings, 29 UCLA L. Rev. 168 (1981)

Finkelstein, The Composer and the Public Interest-Regulation of Performing Right Societies, 19 Law & Contemp. Probs. 275 (1954)

Garner, United States v. ASCAP: The Licensing Provisions of the Amended Final Judgment of 1950, 23 Bull. Copyright Soc’y 119 (1976)

Gasaway, Distance Learning and Copyright, 49 J. Copyright Soc’y 195 (2001)

Gorman, The Recording Musician and Union Power: A Case Study of the American Federation of Musicians, 37 Sw. L.J. 697 (1983)

Hartnick, The Network Blanket License Triumphant — The Fourth Round of the ASCAP-BMI/CBS Litigation, 2 Comm. & the Law 49 (1980)

Helfer, World Music on a U.S. Stage: A Berne/TRIPs and Economic Analysis of the Fairness in Music Licensing Act, 80 B.U. L. Rev. 93 (2000)

Jackson, From Broadcast to Webcast: Copyright Law and Streaming Media, 11 Tex. Intell. Prop. L.J. 447 (2003)

Jehoram, The Future of Copyright Collecting Societies, 23 E.I.P.R. 134 (2001)

Jensen, Is the Library Without Walls on a Collision Course With the 1976 Copyright Act?, 85 Law Libr. J. 619 (1993)

Kernochan, Music Performing Rights Organizations in the United States of America: Special Characteristics, Restraints, and Public Attitudes, 10 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 333 (1986)

Kheit, Public Performance Copyrights: A Guide to Public Place Analysis, 26 Rutgers Computer & Tech. L.J. 1 (1999)

Kim, The Performers’ Plight in Sound Recordings — Unique to the U.S.: A Comparative Study of the Development of Performers’ Rights in the United States, England and France, 10 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 453 (1986)

Koenigsberg, Performing Rights in Music and Performing Rights Organizations, Revisited, 50 J. Copyright Soc’y 355 (2003)

Korman, Performance Rights in Music Under Sections 110 and 118 of the 1976 Copyright Act, 22 N.Y.L. Sch. L. Rev. 521 (1977)

Korman & Koenigsberg, Performing Rights in Music and Performing Rights Societies, 33 J. Copyright Soc’y 332 (1987)

Lipinski, Legal Reform in an Electronic Age: Analysis and Critique of the Construction and Operation of S. 487, The Technology, Education and Copyright Harmonization (TEACH) Act of 2001, 2003 BYU Educ. & L.J. 95 (2003)

Loren, The Evolving Role of “For Profit” Use in Copyright Law: Lessons from the 1909 Act, 26 Santa Clara Computer & High Tech. L.J. 255 (2010)

Loren, Paying the Piper, 3 J. Small & Emerging Bus. L. 231 (1999)

Martin, Compulsory License for Jukeboxes: Why the Song Could Not Remain the Same, 37 J. Copyright Soc’y 262 (1990)

Martin, The WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty: Will the U.S. Whistle a New Tune?, 45 J. Copyright Soc’y 157 (1997)

Nagarajan, Public Performance Rights in Sound Recordings and the Threat of Digitalization, 77 J. Pat. & Trademark Off. Soc’y 721 (1995)

Perrone, Small and Grand Performing Rights (Who Cared Before “Jesus Christ Superstar”?), 20 Bull. Copyright Soc’y 19 (1972)

Scorese, Performing Broadway Music: The Demon Grand Rights Traps, 14 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 123 (1989)

Shipley, Copyright Law and Your Neighborhood Bar and Grill: Recent Developments in Performances and the Section 110(5) Exemption, 29 Ariz. L. Rev. 475 (1987)

Sobel, The Legal and Business Aspects of Motion Picture and Television Soundtrack Music, 8 Loy. Ent. L.J. 231 (1988)

Timberg, The Antitrust Aspects of Merchandising Modern Music: The ASCAP Consent Judgment of 1950, 19 Law & Contemp. Probs. 294 (1954)

Tomlinson & Nielander, Unchained Melody: Music Licensing in the Digital Age, 6 Tex. Intell. Prop. L.J. 277 (1998)

Xalabarder, Copyright and Digital Distance Education: The Use of Pre-existing Works in Distance Education Through the Internet, 26 Colum. J.L. & Arts 101 (2003)

The Public Display Right

Goetzl & Sutton, Copyright and the Visual Artist’s Display Right: A New Doctrinal Analysis, 9 Art & L. 15 (1984)

Moohr, Going Once, Going Twice, Sold! Are Sales of Copyright Items Exposing Internet Auction Sites to Liability?, 21 Loy. L.A. Ent. L.J. 97 (2000)

Reese, The Public Display Right: The Copyright Act’s Neglected Solution to the Controversy over RAM “Copies”, 2001 U. Ill. L. Rev. 83 (2001)

Miscellaneous Rights: In and Beyond Copyright

D. Sinacore-Guinn, Collective Administration of Copyrights and Neighboring Rights: International Practices, Procedures, and Organizations (1993)

Aplin, Contemplating Australia’s Digital Future, 23 Eur. Intell. Prop. L. Rev. 565 (2001)

Armstrong, Fair Circumvention, 74 Brooklyn L. Rev. 1 (2008)

Bartow, Arresting Technology: An Essay, 1 Buff. Intell. Prop. L.J. 95 (2001)

Besek, Anti-Circumvention Laws and Copyright: A Report from the Kernochan Center for Law, Media and the Arts, 27 Colum. J.L. & Arts 385 (2004)

Burk, Anticircumvention Abuse, 50 UCLA L. Rev. 1095 (2003)

Burk, Legal and Technical Standards in Digital Rights Management Technology, 74 Fordham L. Rev.; 537 (2005)

Burk & J. Cohen, Fair Use Infrastructure for Rights Management Systems, 15 Harv. J.L. & Tech. 41 (2001)

Calandrillo & Davison, The Dangers of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act: Much Ado About Nothing?, 50 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 349 (2008)

Carlisle, The Audio Home Recording Act of 1992, 1 J. Intell. Prop. L. 335 (1994)

J. Cohen, DRM and Privacy, 18 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 575 (2003)

J. Cohen, Lochner in Cyberspace: The New Economic Orthodoxy of “Rights Management”, 97 Mich. L. Rev. 462 (1998)

Craddock & McCullagh, Designing Copyright TPM: A Mutuant Digital Copyright, 13 Int’l J. L. & Info. Tech. 155 (2005)

Dallon, The Anti-Bootlegging Provisions: Congressional Power and Constitutional Limitations, 13 Vand. J. Ent. & Tech. L. 255 (2011)

Denicola, Access Controls, Rights Protection, and Circumvention: Interpreting the Digital Millennium Copyright Act to Preserve Noninfringing Use, 31 Colum. J.L. & Arts 209 (2008)

Ezra, The Failure of the Broadcast Flag: Copyright Protection to Make Hollywood Happy, 27 Comm.-Ent. 383 (2005)

Felten, Protection from Copying or Protection from Competition?: The Digital Millennium Copyright Act and Its Legacy: A View From the Trenches, 2002 U. Ill. J.L. Tech & Pol’y 289 (2002)

Field, Copyright Co-Ownership in Cyberspace: The Digital Merger of Content and Technology in Digital Rights Management and E-Commerce, 19 Ent. & Sports Law. 3 (Fall 2001)

Garon, What If DRM Fails?, 2008 Mich. St. L. Rev. 10

Gasaway, The New Access Right and Its Impact on Libraries and Library Users, 10 J. Intell. Prop. L. 269 (2003)

Gass, Considering Copyright Rulemaking: The Constitutional Question, 27 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 1047 (2012)

Ginsburg, Copyright and Control Over New Technologies of Dissemination, 101 Colum. L. Rev. 1613 (2001)

Ginsburg, From Having Copies to Experiencing Works: The Development of an Access Right in U.S. Copyright Law, 50 J. Copyright Soc’y 113 (2003)

Ginsburg, Legal Protection of Technological Measures Protecting Works of Authorship: International Obligations and the U.S. Experience, 29 Colum. J.L. & Arts 11 (2005)

Gorski, The Future of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) Subpoena Power on the Internet in Light of the Verizon Cases, 24 Rev. Litig. 149 (2005)

Hart, The Copyright in the Information Society Directive: An Overview, 24 Eur. Intell. Prop. L. Rev. 58 (2001)

Heide, Access Control and Innovation Under the Emerging EU Electronic Commerce Framework, 15 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 993 (2000)

Helman & Parchomovsky, The Best Available Technology Standard, 111 Colum. L. Rev. 1194 (2011)

Henslee, Copyright Neighborhood Pushin’: Google, YouTube and Viacom Fight for Supremacy in the Neighborhood that may be Controlled by the DMCA’s Safe Harbor Provision, 51 Idea 697 (2011)

Hurwitz, A Proposal in Hindsight: Restoring Copyright’s Delicate Balance by Reworking 17 U.S.C. Sec. 1201, 13 U.C.L.A. Ent. L.J. 263 (2006)

Imfeld, Playing Fair With Fair Use? The Digital Millennium Copyright Act’s Impact on Encryption Researchers and Academicians, 8 Comm. L. & Pol’y 111 (2003)

Jackson, The Copyright Office’s Protection of Fair Use Under the DMCA: Why the Rulemaking Proceedings Might Be Unsustainable and Solutions for their Survival, 58 J. Copyright Soc’y 521 (2011)

Kawamua, Digital Audio Tape Technology: A Formidable Challenge to the American Copyright System, 4 Am. U. J. Int’l L. & Pol’y 409 (1989)

Kurtlantzick & Pennino, The Audio Home Recording Act of 1992 and the Formation of Copyright Policy, 45 J. Copyright Soc’y 497 (1998)

Landau, Has the Digital Millennium Copyright Act Really Created a New Exclusive Right of Access?: Attempting to Reach a Balance Between Users’ and Content Providers’ Rights, 49 J. Copyright Soc’y 277 (2001)

Landau, What If Anti-Bootlegging Statutes Are Upheld Under the Commerce Clause, 2008 Mich. St. L. Rev. 153

Lastowka, Free Access and the Future of Copyright, 27 Rutgers Computer & Tech. L.J. 293 (2001)

Lemley & Reese, Reducing Digital Copyright Infringement Without Restricting Innovation, 56 Stan. L. Rev. 1345 (2004)

Lipton, The Law of Unintended Consequences: The Digital Millennium Copyright Act and Interoperability, 62 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. 487 (2005)

Liu, The DMCA and the Regulation of Scientific Research, 18 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 501 (2003)

Loren, Deterring Abuse of the Copyright Takedown Regime by Taking Misrepresentation Seriously, 46 Wake Forest L. Rev. 745 (2011)

Lunney, The Death of Copyright: Digital Technology, Private Copying, and the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, 87 Va. L. Rev. 813 (2001)

Macdonald, Speed Bump on the Information Superhighway: Slowing Transmission of Digital Works to Protect Copyright Owners, 63 La. L. Rev. 411 (2003)

McCullough, Understanding the Impact of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act on the Open Source Model of Software Development, 6 Marq. Intell. Prop. L. Rev. 91 (2002)

McKuin, Home Audio Taping of Copyrighted Works and the Audio Home Recording Act of 1992: A Critical Analysis, 16 Hastings Comm. & Ent. L.J. 311 (1994)

Madison, Rights of Access and the Shape of the Internet, 44 B.C. L. Rev. 433 (2003)

Marks & Turnbull, Technical Protection Measures: The Intersection of Technology, Law and Commercial Licenses, 22 E.I.P.R. 198 (2000)

Matesky, The Digital Millennium Copyright Act and Non-Infringing Use: Can Mandatory Labeling of Digital Media Products Keep the Sky From Falling?, 80 Chi.-Kent L. Rev. 515 (2005)

Menard, And The Shirt Off Your Back: Universal City Studios, DCSS, and the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, 27 Rutgers Computer & Tech. L.J. 371 (2001)

Mitchell, Copyright, Congress, and Constitutionality: How The Digital Millennium Copyright Act Goes Too Far, 79 Notre Dame L. Rev. 2115 (2004)

Nard, The DMCA’s Anti-Device Provisions: Impeding the Progress of the Useful Arts?, 8 Wash. U. J.L. & Pol’y 19 (2002)

D. Nimmer, Appreciating Legislative History: The Sweet and Sour Spots of the DMCA’s Commentary, 23 Cardozo L. Rev. 909 (2002)

D. Nimmer, Aus der Neuen Welt, 93 Nw. U. L. Rev. 195 (1998)

D. Nimmer, Back from the Future: A Proleptic Review of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, 16 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 855 (2001)

D. Nimmer, Ignoring the Public, Part I: On the Absurd Complexity of the Digital Audio Transmission Right, 7 UCLA Ent. L. Rev. 189 (2000)

Ohm, The Analog Hole and the Price of Music: An Empirical Study, 5 J. Telecomm. & High Tech. L. 573 (2007)

Oliar, Resolving Conflicts Among Congress’ Powers Regarding Statutes’ Constitutionality: The Case of Anti-Bootlegging Statutes, 30 Colum. J.L. & Arts 467 (2007)

Parchomovsky & Goldman, Fair Use Harbors, 93 Va. L. Rev. 1483 (2007)

Patterson, Copyright in the New Millennium: Resolving the Conflict Between Property Rights and Political Rights, 62 Ohio St. L.J. 703 (2001)

Quinn, An Unconstitutional Patent in Disguise: Did Congress Overstep Its Constitutional Authority in Adopting Circumvention Prevention Provisions of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act?, 41 Brandeis L.J. 33 (2002)

Reese, Will Merging Access Controls and Rights Controls Undermine the Structure of Anticircumvention Law?, 18 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 619 (2003)

Reichman, Dinwoodie & Samuelson, A Reverse Notice and Takedown Regime to Enable Public Interest Uses of Technically Protected Copyrighted Works, 22 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 981 (2007)

Rothchild, Economic Analysis of Technological Protection Measures, 84 Or. L. Rev. 489 (2005)

Sawicki, Repeat Infringement in the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, 73 U. Chi. L. Rev. 1455 (2006)

Samuelson & Schultz, Should Copyright Owners Have to Give Notice of Their Use of Technological Protection Measures?, 6 J. Telecomm. & High Tech L. 41 (2007)

Seltzer, The Broadcast Flag: It’s Not Just TV, 57 Fed. Comm. Bar J. 209 (2005)

Seltzer, Free Speech Unmoored in Copyright’s Safe Harbor: Chilling Effects of the DMCA on the First Amendment, 18 J. Intell. Prop. L. 1 (2010)

Shah, UK’s Implementation of the Anti-Circumvention Provisions of the EU Copyright Directive: An Analysis, 2004 Duke L. & Tech. Rev. 3 (2004)

Sharp, Coming Soon to Pay-Per-View: How the Digital Millennium Copyright Act Enables Digital Content Owners to Circumvent Educational Fair Use, 40 Am. Bus. L.J. 1 (2002)

Weinberg, Digital TV, Copy Control, and Public Policy, 20 Cardozo Arts & Ent. LJ 227 (2002)

Williams, Congress Should Amend the Copyright Act to Protect Transactional Watermarks, 2008, 23 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 1367 (2008)

Wong, Cyber-Trespass and “Unauthorized Access” as Legal Mechanisms for Access Control: Lessons from the US Experience, 14 Int’l J.L. & Info. Tech. 90 (2007)

Woodford, Trusted Computing or Big Brother? Putting the Rights Back in Digital Rights Management, 75 U. Colo. L. Rev. 253 (2004)

Yen, What Federal Gun Control Can Teach Us About the DMCA’s Anti-Trafficking Provisions, 2003 Wis. L. Rev. 649

Yu, Anticircumvention and Anti-anticircumvention, 84 Denv. U. L. Rev. 13 (2006)

Xie, The Regulation of Anti-Circumvention in China, 54 J. Copyright Soc’y 545 (2007)

Zieminski, Game Over for Reverse Engineering? How the DMCA and Contracts Have Affected Innovation, 13 J. Tech. L. & Pol’y 289 (2008)

Zimmerman, Adrift in the Digital Millennium Copyright Act: The Sequel, 26 U. Dayton L. Rev. 279 (2001)

Zohar, Towards a Doctrine of “Fair Access” in Copyright: the Federal Circuit’s Accord, 46 IDEA 99 (2005)

Moral Rights

R. Kwall, The Soul of Creativity: Forging a Moral Rights Law for the United States (2010)

C. Lury, Cultural Rights: Technology, Legality, and Personality (1993)

J.H. Merryman & A. Elsen, S. Urice, Law, Ethics and The Visual Arts (5th ed. 2007)

M. Rajan, Moral Rights: Principles, Practice and New Technology (2011)

U.S. Copyright Office, Waiver of Moral Rights in Visual Artworks (1996)

Adler, Against Moral Rights, 97 Cal. L. Rev. 263 (2009)

Aide, A More Comprehensive Soul: Romantic Conceptions of Authorship and the Copyright Doctrine of Moral Rights, 48 U. Toronto L. Rev. 211 (1990)

Ashok, Moral Rights — TRIPs and Beyond: The Indian Slant, 59 J. Copyright Soc’y 697 (2012)

Barnett, From New Technology to Moral Rights: Passive Carriers, Teletext, and Deletion as Copyright Infringement — The WGN Case, 31 J. Copyright Soc’y 427 (1984)

Beck, Scott & Sullivan, Moral Rights and Wrongs: Conflicts in the Digital World, 57 J. Copyright Soc’y 587 (2010)

Beyer, Intentionalism, Art, and the Suppression of Innovation: Film Colorization and the Philosophy of Moral Rights, 82 Nw. U. L. Rev. 1011 (1988)

Burton, Artists’ Moral Rights: Controversy and the Visual Artists’ Rights Act, 48 SMU L. Rev. 639 (1995)

Chang, Revisiting the Visual Artists Rights Act of 1990: A Follow-up Survey about Awareness and Waiver, 13 Tex. Intell. Prop. L.J. 129 (2005)

Ciolino, Moral Rights and Real Obligations: A Property-Law Framework For the Protection of Authors’ Moral Rights, 69 Tul. L. Rev. 935 (1995)

Cotter, Pragmatism, Economics, and the Droit Moral, 76 N.C. L. Rev. 1 (1997)

Damich, A Critique of the Visual Artists Rights Act of 1989, 14 Nova L. Rev. 407 (1990)

Damich, State “Moral Rights” Statutes: An Analysis and Critique, 13 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 291 (1989)

Damich, The New York Artists’ Authorship Rights Act: A Comparative Critique, 84 Colum. L. Rev. 1733 (1984)

Damich, The Right of Personality: A Common-Law Basis for the Protection of the Moral Rights of Authors, 23 Ga. L. Rev. 1 (1988)

Damich, The Visual Artists Rights Act of 1990: Toward a Federal System of Moral Rights Protection for Visual Art, 39 Cath. U. L. Rev. 945 (1990)

DaSilva, Droit Moral and the Amoral Copyright: A Comparison of Artists’ Rights in France and the U.S., 28 Bull. Copyright Soc’y 1 (1980)

Davis, State Moral Rights Law and the Federal Copyright System, 4 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 233 (1986)

Dietz, The Moral Right of the Author: Moral Rights and the Civil Law Countries, 19 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 199 (1995)

Dusollier, Some Reflections on Copyright Management Information and Moral Rights, 25 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 377 (2003)

Dworkin, The Moral Right of the Author: Moral Rights and the Common Law Countries, 19 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 229 (1995)

Francon & Ginsburg, Authors’ Rights in France: The Moral Right of the Creator of a Commissioned Work to Compel the Commissioning Party to Complete the Work, 9 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 381 (1981)

Ginsburg, Copyright in the 101st Congress: Commentary on the Visual Artists’ Rights Act and the Architectural Works Copyright Protection Act of 1990, 14 Colum.-VLA J.L. & the Arts 477 (1990)

Ginsburg, Reforms and Innovations Regarding Authors’ and Performers’ Rights in France, 10 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 83 (1985)

Ginsburg, Suppression and Liberty: Have Moral Rights Come of (Digital) Age in the United States?, 19 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 9 (2001)

Ginsburg, The Right to Claim Authorship in U.S. Copyright and Trademarks Law, 41 Hous. L. Rev. 263 (2004)

Ginsburg & Sirinelli, Authors and Exploitations in International Private Law: The French Supreme Court and the Huston Film Colorization Controversy, 15 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 135 (1991)

Gorman, Federal Moral Rights Legislation: The Need for Caution, 14 Nova L. Rev. 421 (1990)

Gorman, Visual Artists Rights Act of 1990, 38 J. Copyright Soc’y 233 (1991)

Hanson & Santilli, Authors’ and Artists’ Moral Rights: A Comparative Legal and Economic Analysis, 26 J. Legal Stud. 95 (1997)

Hiatt, The “Dirt” on Digital “Sanitizing”: Droit Moral, Artistic Integrity and The Directors Guild of America v. Cleanflicks, 30 Rutgers Computer & Tech. L.J. 375 (2004)

Hughes, American Moral Rights and Fixing the Dastar ‘Gap’, 2007 Utah L. Rev. 659

Karlen, Joint Ownership of Moral Rights, 38 J. Copyright Soc’y 242 (1991)

Karlen, Moral Rights and Real Life Artists, 15 Hastings Comm. & Ent. L.J. 929 (1993)

Kwall, Copyright and the Moral Right: Is an American Marriage Possible?, 38 Vand. L. Rev. 1 (1985)

Kwall, How Fine Art Fares Post VARA, 1 Marq. Intell. Prop. L. Rev. 1 (1997)

Kwall, Originality in Context, 44 Hous. L. Rev. 871 (2007)

Kwall, Preserving Personality and Reputational Interests of Constructed Personas Through Moral Rights: A Blueprint for the Twenty-First Century, 2001 U. Ill. L. Rev. 151

Kwall, The Attribution Right in the United States: Caught in the Crossfire Between Copyright and Section 43A, 77 Wash. L. Rev. 985 (2003)

LaFrance, When You Wish Upon Dastar: Creative Provenance and the Lanham Act, 38 Intell. Prop. L. Rev. 371 (2006)

Landau, Dastar v. Twentieth Century Fox: The Need for Stronger Protection of Attribution Rights in the United States, 61 N.Y.U. Surv. Am. L. 273 (2005)

Leaffer, Of Moral Rights and Resale Royalties: The Kennedy Bill, 7 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 234 (1989)

Lee, Toward an American Moral Rights in Copyright, 58 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. 795 (2001)

Lesicko, Tattoos as Visual Art: How Body Art Fits into the Visual Artists Rights Act, 53 IDEA 29 (2013)

Lipton, Moral Rights and Supernational Fiction: Authorial Dignity and the New Moral Rights Agenda, 21 Fordham Intell. Proper. Media & Ent. L.J. 537 (2011)

Merryman, The Refrigerator of Bernard Buffet, 27 Hastings L.J. 1023 (1976)

Merryman, The Wrath of Robert Rauschenberg, 40 J. Copyright Soc’y 241 (1992)

Netanel, Alienability Restrictions and the Enhancement of Author Autonomy in United States and Continental Copyright Law, 12 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 1 (1994)

Ong, Why Moral Rights Matter: Recognizing the Intrinsic Value of Integrity Rights, 26 Colum. J.L. & Arts 297 (2003)

Roeder, The Doctrine of Moral Right: A Study in the Law of Artists, Authors and Creators, 53 Harv. L. Rev. 554 (1940)

Rudoff, The Dancer and the Dance: An Essay on Composers, Performers, and Integrity Rights, 29 Alberta L. Rev. 884 (1991)

Sergent, Building Reputational Capital: The Right of Attribution Under Section 43 of the Lanham Act, 19 Colum.-VLA J. L. & Arts 45 (1995)

Serra, “Tilted Arc” Destroyed, 14 Nova L. Rev. 385 (1990)

Stern, A Matter of Life or Death: The Visual Artists Rights Act and the Problem of Postmortem Moral Rights, 51 UCLA L. Rev. 849 (2004)

Strauss, The Moral Right of the Author, Copyright Law Revision Study No. 4 (1960)

Tang, The Artist as Brand: Toward a Trademark Conception of Moral Rights, 122 Yale. L.J. 218 (2012)

Treece, American Law Analogues of the Author’s “Moral Right,” 16 Am. J. Comp. L. 487 (1968)

Tushnet, Naming Rights: Attribution and Law, 2007 Utah L. Rev. 789

Tushnet, Payment in Credit: Copyright Law and Subcultural Creativity, 70 Law & Contemp. Probs. 135 (2007)

VerSteeg, Federal Moral Rights for Visual Artists: Contract Theory and Analysis, 67 Wash. L. Rev. 827 (1992)

Wang, (Re)productive Rights: Copyright and Postmodern Art, 14 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 261 (1990)

Yonover, The “Dissing” of Da Vinci: The Imaginary Case of Leonardo v. Duchamp: Moral Rights, Parody, and Fair Use, 29 Val. U. L. Rev. 935 (1995)

Yonover, The Precarious Balance: Moral Rights, Parody, and Fair Use, 14 Cardozo Art & Ent. L.J. 79 (1996)

Chapter 8

INFRINGEMENT ACTIONS

Reference Works

H. Abrams, The Law of Copyright §§ 13.1 to 13.42, 13.49 to 13.50, 14.1 to 14.47, 19.19 to 19.24 (2013)

P. Goldstein, Goldstein on Copyright §§ 9.1 to 9.4, 10.0 to 10.6, 15.1 to 15.6, 16.1 to 16.6, 18.1 to 18.2 (2013)

M. Leaffer, Understanding Copyright Law §§ 9.01 to 9.07, 9.18 to 9.21 (5th ed. 2010)

M. Nimmer & D. Nimmer, Nimmer on Copyright §§ 12.01 to 12.03, 12.08 to 12.12, 12A:1 to 12A:19, 13.01 to 13.03 (2013)

W. Patry, Patry on Copyright §§ 9:1 to 9:278, 17:1 to 17:223, 19:1 to 19:14, 21:1 to 21:39, 25:1 to 25:105 (2013)

Procedural Aspects Generally

Berman, Reese & Young, State Accountability for Violations of Intellectual Property Rights: How to “Fix” Florida Prepaid (And How Not To), 79 Tex. L. Rev. 1037 (2001)

Blair & Cotter, The Elusive Logic of Standing Doctrine in Intellectual Property Law, 74 Tul. L. Rev. 1323 (2000)

Bohannon & Cotter, When the State Steals Ideas: Is the Abrogation of State Sovereign Immunity from Federal Infringement Claims Constitutional in Light of Seminole Tribe?, 4 Fordham L. Rev. (1999)

A. Cohen, “Arising Under” Jurisdiction and the Copyright Laws, 44 Hastings L. Rev. 337 (1993)

J. Cohen, Pervasively Distributed Copyright Enforcement, 95 Geo. L.J. 1 (2006)

Cross, Suing the States for Copyright Infringement, 39 Brandeis L.J. 337 (2000–01)

Feldman, An Examination of the Right to Jury Trial Where Copyright Statutory Damages Are Elected, 21 Hofstra L. Rev. 261 (1992)

Ghosh, Toward a Theory of Regulatory Takings for Intellectual Property: The Path Left Open After College Savings v. Florida Prepaid, 37 San Diego L. Rev. 637 (2000)

Glauberman, Citizen Suits Against States: The Exclusive Jurisdiction Dilemma, 45 J. Copyright Soc’y 63 (1997)

Heald & Wells, Remedies for the Misappropriation of Intellectual Property by State and Municipal Governments Before and After Seminole Tribe: The Eleventh Amendment and Other Immunity Doctrines, 55 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. 849 (1998)

Kwall, Governmental Use of Copyrighted Property: The Sovereign’s Prerogative, 67 Tex. L. Rev. 685 (1989)

Landau & Biederman, The Case for a Specialized Copyright Court: Eliminating the Jurisdictional Advantage, 21 Hastings Comm. & Ent. L.J. 717 (1999)

Latman & Tager, Liability of Innocent Infringers of Copyright, Copyright Law Revision Study No. 25 (1960)

K. Lemley, Eliminating Value of Infringement: An Economic Analysis of Internal Transactions and Indirect External Transactions in Software Infringement Cases, 45 IDEA 425 (2005)

Meltzer, Overcoming Immunity: The Case of Federal Regulation of Intellectual Property, 53 Stan. L. Rev. 1331 (2001)

Menell, Economic Implications of State Sovereign Immunity from Infringement of Federal Intellectual Property Rights, 33 Loy. L.A. L. Rev. 1399 (2000)

D. Nimmer, Repeat Infringers, 52 J. Copyright Soc’y 167 (2005)

Patry, The Right to a Jury in Copyright Cases, 29 J. Copyright Soc’y 139 (1981)

Shoiket, Creative Technology Ltd. v. Aztech System PTE, Ltd.: Using Forum Non Conveniens to Dismiss a Copyright Infringement Action Brought by a Foreign Owner of U.S. Copyrights, 31 U.S.F. L. Rev. 505 (1997)

Volokh, Sovereign Immunity and Intellectual Property, 73 S. Cal. L. Rev. 1161 (2000)

Volokh & McDonnell, Freedom of Speech and Independent Judgment Review in Copyright Cases, 107 Yale L.J. 2431 (1998)

Wanat, Copyright and Contracts: The Subject Matter Jurisdiction of Federal Courts Under 28 U.S.C. § 1338(a), 11 DePaul-LCA J. Art & Ent. L. 361 (2001)

Substantive Aspects Generally

Aoki, Adrift in the Intertext: Authorship and Audience “Recoding” Rights, 68 Chicago-Kent L. Rev. 805 (1993)

Arewa, From J.C. Bach to Hip Hop: Musical Borrowing, Copyright and Cultural Context, 84 N.C.L. Rev. 547 (2006)

Balganesh, The Normativity of Copying in Copyight Law, 62 Duke L.J. 203 (2012)

Bisceglia, Summary Judgment on Substantial Similarity in Copyright Actions, 16 Hastings Comm. & Ent. L.J. 51 (1993)

Bohannon, Copyright Infringement and Harmless Speech, 61 Hastings L.J. 1083 (2010)

Broaddus, Eliminating the Confusion: A Restatement of the Test for Copyright Infringement, 5 J. Art & Ent. L. 43 (1994)

Brown, The Corporate Receipt Conundrum: Establishing Access in Copyright Infringement Actions, 77 Minn. L. Rev. 1409 (1993)

Cadwell, Expert Testimony, Scenes a Faire, and Tonal Music: A (Not So) New Test for Infringement, 46 Santa Clara L. Rev. 137 (2005)

A. Cohen, Masking Copyright Decisionmaking: The Meaninglessness of Substantial Similarity, 20 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 719 (1987)

Dockins, Internet Links: The Good, the Bad, the Tortious, and a Two-Part Test, 36 U. Tol. L. Rev. 367 (2005)

Dogan, Code Versus the Common Law, 2 J. Telecomm. & High Tech. L. 73 (2003)

Druehwald, Copyright Infringement of Musical Compositions: A Systematic Approach, 26 Akron L. Rev. 15 (1992)

Ford, Judging Expertise in Copyright Law, 14 J. Intell. Prop. L. 1 (2006)

Francione, Facing the Nation: The Standards for Copyright Infringement and Fair Use of Factual Works, 134 U. Pa. L. Rev. 519 (1986)

Gherman, Harmony and Its Functionality: A Gloss on the Substantial Similarity Test in Music Copyrights, 19 Fordham Intell. Prop. Media & Ent. L.J. 483 (2009)

Hartnick, Summary Judgment in Copyright: From Cole Porter to Superman, 3 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 53 (1984)

Hetcher, The Kids are Alright: Applying a Fault Liability Standard to Amateur Digital Remix, 62 Fla. L. Rev. 1275 (2010)

Jones, Music Copyright in Theory and Practice: An Improved Approach for Determining Substantial Similarity, 31 Duq. L. Rev. 277 (1993)

Kim, Expert Testimony and Substantial Similarity: Facing the Music in (Music) Copyright Infringement Cases, 19 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 109 (1995)

Kegan, Survey Evidence in Copyright Litigation, 32 J. Copyright Soc’y 283 (1985)

Knowles & Palmieri, Dissecting Krofft: An Expression of New Ideas in Copyright?, 8 San Fern. V. L. Rev. 109 (1980)

Lape, The Metaphysics of the Law: Bringing Substantial Similarity Down to Earth, 98 Dick. L. Rev. 181 (1993)

Latman, “Probative Similarity” as Proof of Copying: Towards Dispelling Some Myths in Copyright Infringement, 90 Colum. L. Rev. 1187 (1990)

M. Lemley, Our Bizarre System of Proving Copyright Infringement, 57 J. Copyright Soc’y 719 (2010)

Litman, Sharing and Stealing, 27 Comm.-Ent. 1 (2004)

Livingston & Urbinato, Copyright Infringement of Music: Determining Whether What Sounds Alike Is Alike, 15 Vand. J. Ent. & Tech L. 227 (2013)

Manta, Reasonable Copyright, 53 B.C. L. Rev. 1303 (2012)

Morrison, Bridgeport Redux: Digital Sampling and Audience Recoding, 19 Fordham Intell. Prop. Media & Ent. L.J. 75 (2008)

Pever, The Transfer of Media to Digital Form: Redefining the Copyright Infringement Test to Include Commercial Use as a Solution to Digital Copyright Infringement, 31 Cap. U.L. Rev. 109 (2003)

Radin, The Significance of Intent to Copy in a Civil Action for Copyright Infringement, 54 Temp. L.Q. 1 (1981)

Schietinger, How the Sixth Circuit Missed a Beat on Digital Music Sampling, 55 DePaul L. Rev. 209 (2005)

Sher, The Search for a Suitable Standard of Substantial Similarity: The Ninth Circuit’s Application of the Krofft Test, 25 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 229 (1991)

Sorensen & Sorensen, Re-Examining the Traditional Legal Test of Literary Similarity: A Proposal for Content Analysis, 37 Cornell L.Q. 638 (1952)

Taylor, Common Errors as Evidence of Copying, 22 Bull. Copyright Soc’y 444 (1975)

Tehranian, Curbing Copyblight, 14 Vand. J. Ent. & Tech. L. 993 (2012)

Wong, Rocking and Ripping on the World Wide Web, 3 Sing. Acad. L.J. 323 (2001)

Wright, Hand, Posner, and the Myth of the Hand Formula, 4 Theoretical Inq. L. 145 (2003)

Y’Barbo, The Heart of the Matter: The Property Right Conferred by Copyright, 49 Mercer L. Rev. 643 (1998)

Software Infringement

G.P. Albert, Intellectual Property Law in Cyberspace (2011)

R. Nimmer, The Law of Computer Technology: Rights, Licenses, Liabilities (2013)

H. Scott, Computer and Intellectual Property Crime: Federal and State Law (2001 and 2006 Supp.)

Brown, “Analytical Dissection” of Copyrighted Computer Software — Complicating the Simple and Confounding the Complex, 25 Ariz. St. L.J. 801 (1993)

Clapes, Lynch & Steinberg, Silicon Epics and Binary Bards: Determining the Proper Scope of Copyright Protection for Computer Programs, 34 UCLA L. Rev. 1493 (1987)

J. Cohen, Reverse Engineering and the Rise of Electronic Vigilantism: Intellectual Property Implications of “Lock-Out” Programs, 68 S. Cal. L. Rev. 1091 (1995)

Dam, Some Economic Considerations in the Intellectual Property Protection of Software, 24 J. Legal Stud. 321 (1995)

Dogan & Liu, Copyright Law and Subject Matter Specificity: The Case of Computer Software, 61 N.Y.U. Ann. Surv. Am. L. 203 (2005)

Fox, Harsh Realities: Substantial Similarity in the Reality Television Context, 13 U.C.L.A. Ent. L. Rev. 223 (2006)

Goldstein, Infringement of Copyright in Computer Programs, 47 U. Pitt. L. Rev. 1119 (1986)

Gordon, Copying to Compete: The Tension Between Copyright Protection and Antitrust Policy in Recent Non-Literal Computer Program Copyright Infringement Cases, 15 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 171 (1996)

Hamilton & Sabety, Computer Science Concepts in Copyright Cases: The Path to a Coherent Law, 10 Harv. J.L. & Tech. 239 (1997)

Karjala, Copyright Protection of Computer Software, Reverse Engineering, and Professor Miller, 19 U. Dayton L. Rev. 975 (1994)

Litman, Revising Copyright Law for the Information Age, 75 Ore. L. Rev. 19 (1996)

Lowe, A Square Peg in a Round Hole: The Proper Substantial Similarity Test for Nonliteral Aspects of Computer Programs, 68 Wash. L. Rev. 351 (1993)

Lunney, Lotus v. Borland: Copyright and Computer Programs, 70 Tul. L. Rev. 2397 (1996)

Menell, An Analysis of the Scope of Copyright Protection for Application Programs, 41 Stan. L. Rev. 1045 (1989)

Menell, Tailoring Legal Protection for Computer Software, 41 Stan. L. Rev. 1329 (1987)

Miller, Copyright Protection for Computer Programs, Databases, and Computer-Generated Works: Is Anything New Since CONTU?, 106 Harv. L. Rev. 977 (1993)

D. Nimmer, Brains and Other Paraphernalia of the Digital Age, 10 Harv. J.L. & Tech. 1 (1996)

D. Nimmer, Bernacchi & Frischling, A Structured Approach to Analyzing the Substantial Similarity of Computer Software in Copyright Infringement Cases, 20 Ariz. St. L.J. 625 (1988)

Ogilvie, Defining Computer Program Parts Under Learned Hand’s Abstractions Test in Software Copyright Infringement Cases, 91 Mich. L. Rev. 526 (1992)

Palmer & Vinje, The E.C. Directive on the Legal Protection of Computer Software: New Law Governing Software Development, 2 Duke J. Comp. & Int’l L. 65 (1992)

Patry, Copyright and Computer Programs: It’s All in the Definition, 14 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 1 (1996)

Risch, How Can Whelan v. Jaslow and Lotus v. Borland Both Be Right? Reexamining the Economics of Computer Software Reuse, 17 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 511 (1999)

Rosen, Virtual Reality: Copyrightable Subject Matter and the Scope of Judicial Protection, 33 Jurimetrics J. 35 (1992)

Samuelson, Computer Programs, User Interfaces, and Section 102(b) of the Copyright Act of 1976: A Critique of Lotus v. Paperback, 6 High Tech. L.J. 209 (1991)

Samuelson, The Nature of Copyright Analysis for Computer Programs: Copyright Law Professors’ Brief Amicus Curiae in “Lotus v. Borland, 16 Hastings Comm. & Ent. L.J. 657 (1994)

Samuelson & Glushko, Comparing the Views of Lawyers and User Interface Designers on the Software “Look and Feel” Law Suits, 30 Jurimetrics J. 121 (1988)

Shikowitz, License to Kill: MDY v. Blizzard and the Battle over Copyright in World of Warcraft, 75 Brook. L. Rev. 1015 (2010)

Stevens, Copyright Infringement of Computer Programs Stored on ROM Computer Chips, 78 J. Patent & Trademark Off. Soc’y 640 (1996)

Teter, Merger and the Machines: An Analysis of the Pro-Compatibility Trend in Computer Software Copyright Cases, 45 Stan. L. Rev. 1061 (1993)

Wright, Litigation as a Mechanism for Inefficiency in Software Copyright Law, 39 UCLA L. Rev. 397 (1991)

Extraterritoriality and Conflicts of Laws

Austin, Social Policy Choices and Choice of Law for Copyright Infringement in Cyberspace, 79 Or. L. Rev. 575 (2000)

Bradley, Territorial Intellectual Property Law in an Age of Globalism, 37 Va. J. Int’l L. 505 (1997)

Chien-Hale, Asserting U.S. Intellectual Property Rights in China: Expansion of Extraterritorial Jurisdiction, 45 J. Copyright Soc’y 198 (1997)

Dinwoodie, The Architecture of the International Intellectual Property System, 77 Chi.-Kent L. Rev. 993 (2002)

Dreyfuss & Ginsburg, Draft Convention on Jurisdiction and Recognition of Judgments in Intellectual Property Matters, 77 Chi.-Kent L. Rev. 1065 (2002)

Geller, Conflicts of Laws in Copyright Cases: Infringement and Ownership Issues, 51 J. Copyright Soc’y 315 (2004)

Geller, Conflicts of Laws in Cyberspace: Rethinking International Copyright, 44 J. Copyright Soc’y 103 (1996)

Geller, Harmonizing Copyright-Contract Conflicts Analyses, 25 Copyright 49 (1989)

Ginsburg, Copyright Without Borders? Choice of Forum and Choice of Law for Copyright Infringement in Cyberspace, 15 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 153 (1997)

Ginsburg, Extraterritoriality and Multiterritoriality in Copyright Infringement, 37 Va. J. Int’l L. 587 (1997)

Ginsburg, The Cyberian Captivity of Copyright: Territoriality and Authors’ Rights in a Networked World, 20 Santa Clara & High Tech. L.J. 185 (2003)

Goldsmith, Against Cyberanarchy, 65 U. Chi. L. Rev. 1199 (1998)

Goldstein (moderator), Ideas Without Boundaries: Creating and Protecting Intellectual Property in the International Arena: Copyright’s Long Arm: Enforcing U.S. Copyrights Abroad, 24 Loy. L.A. Ent. L. Rev. 45 (2004)

Harkins, Overcoming the Extraterritorial Bar to Bringing Copyright Actions: On Pleading Copyright Infringement to Protect Copyrighted Works from the Defendant that Ships Overseas for Distribution Abroad, 17 Intell. Prop. & Tech. L.J. 1 (2005)

Kirios, Territoriality and International Copyright Actions, 22 Copyright L. Symp. (ASCAP) 53 (1977)

Koneru, The Right to Authorize in U.S. Copyright Law: Questions of Contributory Infringement and Extraterritoriality, 37 IDEA 87 (1996)

Lee, The New Canon: Using or Misusing Foreign Law to Decide Domestic Intellectual Property Claims, 46 Harv. Int’l L.J. 1 (2005)

M. Nimmer, Who Is the Copyright Owner When the Laws Conflict?, 5 IIC 62 (1974)

Patchel, Software as a Commodity: International Licensing of Intellectual Property: Choice of Law and Software Licenses: A Framework for Discussion, 26 Brooklyn J. Int’l L. 117 (2000)

Patry, Choice of Law and International Copyright, 48 Am. J. Comp. L. 383 (2000)

Post, Against “Against Cyberanarchy”, 17 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 1365 (2002)

Wollman, Maneuvering Through the Landmines of Multiterritorial Copyright Litigation: How to Avoid the Presumption Against Extraterritoriality When Attempting to Recover for the Foreign Exploitation of U.S. Copyrighted Works, 104 W. Va. L. Rev. 343 (2002)

Xalabarder, Choice of Law and Jurisdiction in the Digital Age, 8 Ann. Surv. Int’l & Comp. L. 79 (2002)

Yu, Region Codes and the Territorial Mess, 30 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 187 (2012)

Chapter 9

SECONDARY LIABILITY

Reference Works

H. Abrams, The Law of Copyright §§ 14.48 to 14.81 (2013)

P. Goldstein, Goldstein on Copyright §§ 8.0 to 8.3 (2013)

M. Leaffer, Understanding Copyright Law §§ 8.32 to 8.37, 9.08 to 9.09 (5th ed. 2010)

M. Nimmer & D. Nimmer, Nimmer on Copyright §§ 12.04, 12B.01 to 12B.12 (2013)

W. Patry, Patry on Copyright §§ 21:40 to 21:90 (2013)

Contributory and Vicarious Infringement

Armstrong, Sony, Napster, and Aimster: An Analysis of Dissimilar Application of the Copyright Law to Similar Technologies, 13 DePaul-LCA J. Art & Ent. L. 1 (2003)

Band, So What Does Inducement Mean?, 22 Computer & Internet L. 1 (2005)

Band & Schruers, Safe Harbors Against the Liability Hurricane: The Communications Decency Act and the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, 20 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 295 (2002)

Bartholomew & Tehranian, The Secret Life of Legal Doctrine: The Divergent Evolution of Secondary Liability in Trademark and Copyright Law, 21 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 1363 (2006)

Bartow, Women in the Web of Secondary Liability and Internet Filtering, 32 N. Ky. L. Rev. 2020 (2005)

Botein & Samuels, Compulsory Licenses in Peer-to-Peer File Sharing: A Workable Solution?, 30 S. Ill. L.J. 69 (2005)

Carmichael, In Support of the White Paper: Why Online Service Providers Should Not Receive Immunity from Traditional Notions of Vicarious and Contributory Liability for Copyright Infringement, 16 Loy. L.A. Ent. J.L. 759 (1996)

Carroll, Disruptive Technology and Common Law Lawmaking: A Brief Analysis of A & M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc., 9 Vill. Sports & Ent. L.J. 5 (2002)

J. Cohen, Comment: Copyright’s Public-Private Distinction (Response to article by Jessica Litman in Law Technology and the Arts Symposium: “Copyright and Personal Copying: Sony v. Universal Studios Twenty-One Years Later”), 55 Case W. Res. L. Rev. 963 (2005)

J. Cohen, The Place of the User in Copyright Law (Symposium: Law and the Information Society), 74 Fordham L. Rev. 347 (2005)

Corsaro, From Betamax to YouTube: How Sony Corporation of America v. Universal City Studios, Inc. Could Still Be a Standard for New Technology, 64 Fed. Comm. L.J. 449 (2012)

Desai, Big Entertainment Needs a Sequel to the Highly Anticipated Flop: MGM v. Grokster, 41 Ga. L. Rev. 579 (2007)

Dean, Expanding the Doctrines of Vicarious and Contributory Copyright Infringement: Fonovisa, Inc. v. Cherry Auction, Inc. Targets the Primary Distribution Channels for Counterfeit Merchandise, 4 Vill. Sports & Ent. L.J. 119 (1997)

Denster, Fault-Based Libel and Copyright Infringement Liability for On-Line Content Providers and Bulletin Board Operators as “Information Distributors,” 11 St. John’s J. Legal Comment. 653 (1996)

Dogan, Infringement Once Removed: The Perils of Hyperlinking to Infringing Content, 87 Iowa L. Rev. 829 (2002)

Feder, Is Betamax Obsolete? Sony Corp. of America v. Universal City Studios, Inc. in the Age of Napster, 37 Creighton L. Rev. 859 (2004)

Ghosh, Turning Gray into Green: Some Comments on Napster, 23 Hastings Comm. & Ent. L.J. 563 (2001)

Gilbert & Katz, When Good Value Chains Go Bad: The Economics of Indirect Liability for Copyright Infringement, 52 Hastings L.J. 961 (2001)

Ginsburg, Copyright Use and Excuse on the Internet, 24 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 1 (2000)

Ginsburg Separating the Sony Sheep From the Grokster Goats: Reckoning the Future Business Plans of Copyright-Dependent Technology Entrepreneurs, 50 Ariz. L. Rev. 577 (2008)

Glatstein, Tertiary Copyright Liability, 71 U. Chi. L. Rev. 1605 (2004)

Hamdani, Who’s Liable for Cyberwrongs?, 87 Cornell L. Rev. 901 (2002)

Hamilton, The Distant Drumbeat: Why the Law Still Matters in the Information Era, 20 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 259 (2002)

Helman, Pull Too Hard and the Rope May Break: On the Secondary Liability of Technology Providers for Copyright Infringement, 19 Tex. Intell. Prop. L.J. 111 (2010)

Hogberg, The Search for Intent-Based Doctrine of Secondary Liability in Copyright Law, 106 Colum. L. Rev. 909 (2006)

Hollaar, Liability for Inducement of Copyright Infringement: The Genie Is Out of the Bottle, 8 J. Int. L. 18 (2004)

Honigsberg, The Evolution and Revolution of Napster, 36 U.S.F. L. Rev. 473 (2002)

Jackson, One Step Forward, Two Steps Back: An Historical Analysis of Copyright Liability, 20 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 367 (2002)

P. Kitch, DMCA Is OEM’s Ticket to “Super-Patenting the Unpatentable,” 17 Intell. Property & Tech. L.J. 5 (2005)

Ku, Grokking Grokster, 2005 Wis. L. Rev. 1217

Ku, The Creative Destruction of Copyright: Napster and the New Economics of Digital Technology, 69 U. Chi. L. Rev. 263 (2002)

Lange, Students, Music and the Net: A Comment on Peer-to-Peer File Sharing, 2003 Duke L. & Tech. Rev. 21

M. Lemley & Reese, A Quick and Inexpensive System for Resolving Peer-to-Peer Copyright Disputes, 23 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 1 (2005)

Lewis, The Yellow Submarine Steers Clear of U.S. Copyright Law: The Ninth Circuit Reexamines the Doctrine of Contributory Infringement, 18 Loy. L.A. Int’l & Comp. L.J. 371 (1996)

Lichtman & Landes, Indirect Liability for Copyright Infringement: An Economic Perspective, 16 Harv. J.L. & Tech. 395 (2003)

Lieberman, A Homerun for Three Strikes Law: Graduated Response and Its Bid to Save Copyright, 59 J. Copyright Soc’y 223 (2012)

Lipton, Secondary Liability and the Fragmentation of Digital Copyright Law, 3 Akron Intell. Prop J. 105 (2009)

Litman, The Sony Paradox, 55 Case. W. Res. L. Rev. 917 (2005)

Malone, Contributory Liability for Access Providers: Solving the Conundrum Digitization Has Placed on Copyright Laws, 49 Fed. Comm. L.J. 491 (1997)

Mehra, Software as Crime: Japan, the United States, and Contributory Copyright Infringement, 79 Tulane L. Rev. 265 (2004)

Menell & Nimmer, Legal Realism in Action: Indirect Copyright Liability’s Continuing Tort Framework and Sony’s De Facto Demise, 55 UCLA L. Rev. 143 (2007)

Myers, Speaking Frankly About Copyright Infringement on Computer Bulletin Boards: Lessons to be Learned from Frank Music, Netcom, and the White Paper, 49 Vand. L. Rev. 439 (1996)

Mota, Napster: Facilitation of Sharing, Or Contributory and Vicarious Copyright Infringement?, 2 Minn. Intell. Prop. Rev. 61 (2001)

Moye, How Sony Survived: Peer-to-Peer Software, Grokster, and Contributory Copyright Liability in the Twenty-First Century, 84 N.C. L. Rev. 646 (2006)

Netanel, Impose a Noncommercial Use Levy to Allow Free Peer-to-Peer File Sharing, 17 Harv. J.L. & Tech. 1 (2003)

D. Nimmer, An Odyssey Through Copyright’s Vicarious Defenses, 73 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 162 (1998)

D. Nimmer & Menell, Copyright’s “Staple Article of Commerce” Doctrine: Patently Misguided, 53 J. Copyright Soc’y 365 (2006)

Oddi, Contributory Copyright Infringement: The Tort and Technology Tensions, 64 Notre Dame L. Rev. 47 (1989)

Orbach, Indirect Free Riding on the Wheels of Commerce: Dual-Use Technologies and Copyright Liability, 57 Emory L.J. 409 (2008)

Picker, Rewinding Sony: The Evolving Product, Phoning Home and the Duty of Ongoing Design, 55 Case W. Res. L. Rev. 749 (2005)

Pomeroy, Promoting the Progress of Science and the Useful Art in the Digital Domain: Copyright, Computer Bulletin Boards, and Liability for Infringement by Others, 45 Emory L.J. 1035 (1996)

Rasenberger & Pepe, Copyright Enforcement and Online File Hosting Services: Have Courts Struck the Proper Balance?, 59 J. Copyright Soc’y 627 (2012)

Rushton & Jones, The Tortoise and the Hare: Canadian Legislative Copyright Reforms Race Against Copyright Infringement Over Kazaa and Other New Generation Peer-to-Peer Networks, 32 AIPLA Q. J. 197 (2004)

Samuelson, Three Reactions to MGM v. Grokster, 13 Mich. Telecomm. & Tech L. Rev. 177 (2006)

Schulman, Internet Copyright Infringement Liability: Is an Online Access Provider More Like a Landlord or a Dancehall Operator?, 27 Golden Gate U. L. Rev. 555 (1997)

Scully, Beyond Napster — Is It Just Music? Or Are Judicial Resolutions Ineffective in Digital Commerce?, 15 Transnat’l Law. 313 (2002)

Schultz, The False Origin of the Induce Act, 32 N. Ky. L. Rev. 527 (2005)

Self, The Vicarious Liability of Trade Show Organizers for the Copyright Infringement of Exhibitors, 5 Tex. Intell. Prop. L.J. 81 (1996)

Shah, Modding the Web: Secondary Liability under Copyright and Web Modification Software in a Post-Grokster World, 85 Tex. L. Rev. 703 (2007)

Sookman, Understanding Flava Works v. myVidster: Does Inline Linking Infringe Copyright?, 59 J. Copyright Soc’y 723 (2012)

Stephens & Summer, Catch 22: Internet Service Providers’ Liability for Copyright Infringement Over the Internet, 14 Computer Law. 1 (1997)

Tushnet, I Put You There: User-Generated Content and Anticircumvention, 12 Vand J. Ent. & Tech. L. 889 (2010)

Yen, Internet Service Provider Liability for Subscriber Copyright Infringement, Enterprise Liability, and the First Amendment, 88 Geo. L.J. 1833 (2000)

Yen, A Personal Injury Law Perspective on Copyright in an Internet Age, 52 Hastings L.J. 929 (2001)

Yen, A Preliminary Economic Analysis of Napster: Internet Technology, Copyright Liability, and The Possibility of Coasean Bargaining, 26 U. Dayton L. Rev. 247 (2001)

Yen, Sony, Tort Doctrines, and the Puzzle of Peer-to-Peer, 55 Case W. Res. L. Rev. 815 (2005)

Yen, Third-Party Copyright Liability After Grokster, 91 Minn. L. Rev. 184 (2006)

Zittrain, A History of Online Gatekeeping, 19 Harv. J.L. & Techn. 255 (2006)

Chapter 10

FAIR USE AND AFFIRMATIVE DEFENSES

Reference Works

H. Abrams, The Law of Copyright §§ 13.43 to 13.48, 15.1 to 15.136, 16.1 to 16.23 (2013)

P. Goldstein, Goldstein on Copyright §§ 11.1 to 11.6, 12.1 to 12.3 (2013)

M. Leaffer, Understanding Copyright Law §§ 10.01 to 10.21 (5th ed. 2010)

M. Nimmer & D. Nimmer, Nimmer on Copyright §§ 12.05 to 12.06, 13.04 to 13.09 (2013)

W. Patry, Patry on Fair Use (2013)

W. Patry, Patry on Copyright §§ 10:1 to 10:160, 10A:1, 20.1 to 20.58 (2013)

Development of the Fair Use Privilege

P. Aufderheide & P. Jaszi, Reclaiming Fair Use: How to Put Balance Back in Copyright (2011)

G. Davies, Copyright and the Public Interest (2d ed. 2002)

L.R. Patterson & S.W. Lindberg, The Nature of Copyright: A Law of Users’ Rights (1991)

S. Vaidhyanathan, Copyrights and Copywrongs: The Rise of Intellectual Property and How It Threatens Creativity (2001)

Afori, An Open Standard ‘Fair Use’ Doctrine: A Welcome Israeli Initiative, 30 E.I.P.R. 85 (2008)

Anderson & Brown, The Economics Behind Copyright Fair Use: A Principled and Predictable Body of Law, 24 Loy. U. Chi. L.J. 143 (1993)

Beebe, An Empirical Study of U.S. Copyright Fair Use Opinions, 1978–2005, 156 U. Pa. L. Rev. 549 (2008)

Beebe, Does Judicial Ideology Affect Copyright Fair Use Outcomes?: Evidence From the Fair Use Case Law, Colum. J.L. & Arts 517 (2008)

Beebe, Fair Use and Legal Futurism, 25 Law & Literature 10 (2013)

Birch, Copyright Fair Use: A Constitutional Imperative, 54 J. Copyright Soc’y 139 (2007)

Bunker, Advertising and Appropriation: Copyright and Fair Use in Advertising, 54 J. Copyright Soc’y 167 (2008)

Ciolino, Rethinking the Compatibility of Moral Rights and Fair Use, 54 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. 33 (1997)

Cohen, Fair Use in Copyright Law, 6 Copyright L. Symp. (ASCAP) 42 (1955)

Conley, Author, User, Scholar, Thief: Fair Use and Unpublished Works, 9 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 15 (1990)

Cotter, Fair Use and Copyright Overenforcement, 93 Iowa L. Rev. 1271 (2008)

Cotter, Transformative Use and Cognizable Harm, 12 Vand. J. Ent. & Tech. L. 755 (2010)

Decherney, Communicating Fair Use: Norms, Myths, and the Avant-Garde, 25 Law & Literature 50 (2013)

Donaldson, Fair Use: What a Difference a Decade Makes, 57 J. Copyright Soc’y 331 (2010)

Dratler, Distilling the Witches’ Brew of Fair Use in Copyright Law, 43 Miami L. Rev. 233 (1988)

Dursht, Judicial Plagiariams: It May be Fair Use But Is It Ethical?, 18 Cardozo L. Rev. 1253 (1996)

Falzone & Urban, Demystifying Fair Use: The Gift of the Center for Social Media Statements of Best Practices, 57 J. Copyright Soc’y 337 (2010)

Fisher, Reconstructing the Fair Use Doctrine, 101 Harv. L. Rev. 1659 (1988)

Francione, Facing The Nation: The Infringement and Fair Use of Factual Works, 134 U. Pa. L. Rev. 519 (1986)

Frankel & Kellogg, Bad Faith and Fair Use, 60 J. Copyright Soc’y 1 (2013)

Geiger, Promoting Creativity Through Copyright Limitations: Reflections on the Concept of Exclusivity in Copyright Law, 12 Vand. J. Ent. & Tech. L. 515 (2010)

Gervais, Fair Use, Fair Dealing, Fair Principles: Efforts to Conceptualize Limitations and Exceptions to Copyright, 57 J. Copyright Soc’y 499 (2010)

Gordon, Fair Use as Market Failure: A Structural and Economic Analysis of the Betamax Case and Its Predecessors, 82 Colum. L. Rev. (1982)

Gordon, Fair Use Markets: On Weighing Potential License Fees, 79 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 1814 (2011)

Gordon, Fair Use: Threat or Threatened?, 55 Case. W. Res. L. Rev. 903 (2005)

Gordon, Market Failure and Intellectual Property: A Response to Professor Lunney, 82 B.U. L. Rev. 1031 (2002)

Heymann, Everything Is Transformative: Fair Use and Reader Response, 31 Colum. J.L. & Arts 445 (2008)

Kasunic, Is That All There Is? Reflections on the Nature of the Second Fair Use Factor, 31 Colum. J.L. & Arts 529 (2008)

Kasunic, The Problem of Meaning in Non-Discursive Expression, 57 J. Copyright Soc’y 399 (2010)

Lape, Transforming Fair Use: The Productive Use Factor in Fair Use Doctrine, 58 Alb. L. Rev. 677 (1995)

Latman, Fair Use of Copyrighted Works, Copyright Law Revision Study No. 14 (1960)

Leval, Campbell v. Acuff-Rose: Justice Souter’s Rescue of Fair Use, 13 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 19 (1994)

Leval, Fair Use or Foul?, 36 J. Copyright Soc’y 167 (1989)

Leval, Fair Use Rescued, 44 UCLA L. Rev. 1449 (1997)

Leval, Toward a Fair Use Standard, 103 Harv. L. Rev. 1105 (1990)

Liu, Two-Factor Fair Use?, 31 Colum. J.L. & Arts 571 (2009)

Liu, Toward a Defense of Fair Use Enablement, or How U.S. Copyright Law Is Hurting My Daughter, 57 J. Copyright Soc’y 423 (2010)

Loren, Redefining the Market Failure Approach to Fair Use in an Era of Copyright Permissions Systems, 5 J. Intell. Prop. L. 1 (1997)

Lunney, Fair Use and Market Failure: Sony Revisited, 82 B.U. L. Rev. 975 (2002)

Madison, Madisonian Fair Use, 30 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 39 (2012)

Madison, Some Optimism About Fair Use and Copyright Law, 57 J. Copyright Soc’y 351 (2010)

McJohn, Fair Use and Privatization in Copyright, 35 San Diego L. Rev. 61 (1998)

Miller, Fair Use, Biographers, and Unpublished Works: Life After H.R. 4412, 40 J. Copyright Soc’y 349 (1993)

Miner, Exploiting Stolen Text: Fair Use or Foul Play?, 37 J. Copyright Soc’y 1 (1989)

Morris, Use of Copyrighted Images in Academic Scholarship and Creative Work: The Problems of New Technologies and Proposed Scholarly License, 33 IDEA 123 (1993)

Nelson, The Fine Art of Reproduction: The Doctrine of Fair Use and Auction House Catalogues, 18 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 291 (1994)

Netanel, Making Sense of Fair Use, 15 Lewis & Clark L. Rev. 715 (2011)

Newman, Not the End of History: The Second Circuit Struggles With Fair Use, 37 J. Copyright Soc’y 12 (1989)

D. Nimmer, “Fairest of Them All” and Other Fairy Tales of Fair Use, 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 263 (2003)

O’Neill, The Content of Their Characters: J.D. Salinger, Holden Caulfield, Fredrik Colting, 59 J. Copyright Soc’y 291 (2012)

Patterson, Folsom v. Marsh and Its Legacy, 5 J. Intell. Prop. L. 431 (1998)

Patterson, Understanding Fair Use, 55 Law & Contemp. Probs. 249 (1992)

Patry, Fair Use After Sony and Harper & Row, 8 Comm. & The Law 21 (1986)

Raskind, A Functional Interpretation of Fair Use, 31 J. Copyright Soc’y 601 (1984)

Reese, Transformativeness and the Derivative Work Right, 31 Colum. J.L. & Arts 467 (2008)

Rothman, Best Intentions: Reconsidering Best Practices Statements in the Context of Fair Use and Copyright Law, 57 J. Copyright Soc’y 371 (2010)

Sag, The Google Book Settlement and the Fair Use Counterfactual, 55 N.Y.L.S. L. Rev. 19 (2010/11)

Sag, The Pre-History of Fair Use, 76 Brook. L. Rev. 1371 (2011)

Samuelson, The Google Book Settlement as Copyright Reform, 2011 Wis. L. Rev. 479

Samuelson, Unbundling Fair Uses, 77 Fordham L. Rev. 2537 (2009)

Seltzer, Exemptions and Fair Use in Copyright: The “Exclusive Rights” Tensions in the New Copyright Act, 24 Bull. Copyright Soc’y 215 (1977)

Snow, Proving Fair Use: Burden of Proof as Burden of Speech, 31 Cardozo L. Rev. 1781 (2010)

Sobel, Copyright and the First Amendment: A Gathering Storm?, 19 Copyright L. Symp. (ASCAP) 43 (1971)

Spoo, “Ah, you publishing scoundrel!”: A Hauntological Reading of Privacy, Moral Rights, and the Fair Use of Unpublished Works, 25 Law & Literature 85 (2013)

Tuchman, Judge Leval’s Transformation Standard: Can It Really Distinguish Foul from Fair?, 51 J. Copyright Soc’y 101 (2004)

Tushnet, Judges as Bad Reviewers, 25 Law & Literature 20 (2013)

Tushnet, User-Generated Discontent: Transformation in Practice, 31 Colum. J.L. & Arts 497 (2008)

Weinreb, Fair’s Fair: A Comment on the Fair Use Doctrine, 103 Harv. L. Rev. 1137 (1990)

Weinreb, Fair Use and How It Got That Way, 45 J. Copyright Soc. 634 (1998)

Williams, Recent Second Circuit Opinions Indicate That Google’s Library Project Is Not Transformative, 25 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 303 (2007)

Wu, Tolerated Use, 31 Colum. J.L. & Arts 617 (2008)

Zissu, Fair Use: From Harper & Row to Acuff Rose, 42 J. Copyright Soc’y 7 (1994)

Fair Use, Free Speech, and Parody

Beck, Copyright and the First Amendment: After the Wind Done Gone, 5 Vand. J. Ent. L. & Prac. 5 (2003)

Berg, Copying for Religious Reasons: A Comment on Principles of Copyright and Religious Freedom, 21 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 287 (2003)

J. Cohen, Copyright’s Public-Private Distinction, 55 Case. W. Res. L. Rev. 963 (2005)

Farrell, Fair Use of Copyrighted Material in Advertisement Parodies, 92 Colum. L. Rev. 1550 (1992)

Gallo, Barbie’s Life in Plastic: It’s Fantastic for First Amendment Protection — Or Is It?, 29 U. Dayton L. Rev. 405 (2004)

Gerhardt, Fair Use and Fairness on Campus, 11 N.C. J. L. & Tech. 417 (2010)

Goldstein, Copyright and the First Amendment, 70 Colum. L. Rev. 983 (1970)

Kaplan, Parody and the Fair Use Defense to Copyright Infringement: Appropriate Purpose and Object of Humor, 26 Ariz. St. L.J. 857 (1994)

Ku, Consumers and Creative Destruction: Fair Use Beyond Market Failure, 18 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 589 (2003)

Leval, Campbell v. Acuff-Rose: Justice Souter’s Rescue of Fair Use, 13 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 19 (1994)

Light, Parody, Burlesque and the Economic Rationale for Copyright, 11 Conn. L. Rev. 615 (1979)

Litman, The Sony Paradox, 55 Case W. Res. L. Rev. 903 (2005)

McCausland, Protecting ‘A Fine Tradition of Satire’: The New Fair Dealing Exception for Parody or Satire in the Australian Copyright Act, 29 E.I.P.R. 287 (2007)

McLean, All’s Not Fair in Art and War: A Look at the Fair Use Defense After Rogers v. Koons, 59 Brooklyn L. Rev. 373 (1993)

Mezei, Fair Use and Culture: Comments on the Gowers Review, 39 U. Tol. L. Rev. 653 (2008)

Merges, Are You Making Fun of Me? Notes on Market Failure and the Parody Defense in Copyright, 21 AIPLA Q.J. 305 (1993)

M. Nimmer, Does Copyright Abridge the First Amendment Guarantees of Free Speech and Press?, 17 UCLA L. Rev. 1180 (1970)

Ochoa, Dr. Seuss, The Juice and Fair Use: How the Grinch Silenced a Parody, 45 J. Copyright Soc’y 546 (1998)

Patterson, Free Speech, Copyright, and Fair Use, 40 Vand. L. Rev. 1 (1987)

Patterson & Birch, Copyright and Free Speech Rights, 4 J. Intell. Prop. L. 1 (1997)

Patry & Perlmutter, Fair Use Misconstrued: Profit, Presumptions, and Parody, 11 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 667 (1993)

Pessach, Copyright Law as a Silencing Restriction on Noninfringing Materials: Unveiling the Scope of Copyright’s Diversity Externalities, 76 S. Cal. L. Rev. 1275 (2003)

Posner, When Is Parody Fair Use?, 21 J. Legal Stud. 67 (1992)

Rushton & Jones, The Tortoise and the Hare: Canadian Legislative Copyright Reforms Race Against Copyright Infringement Over Kazaa and Other New Generation Peer-to-Peer Networks, 32 AIPLA Q. J. 197 (2004)

Samuelson, Reviving Zacchini: Analyzing First Amendment Defenses in Right of Publicity and Copyright Cases, 57 Tul. L. Rev. 836 (1983)

Tushnet, Copy This Essay: How Fair Use Doctrine Harms Free Speech and How Copying Serves It, 114 Yale L.J. 535 (2004)

Yen, When Authors Won’t Sell: Parody, Fair Use, and Efficiency in Copyright Law, 62 U. Colo. L. Rev. 79 (1991)

Yonover, The Precarious Balance: Moral Rights, Parody & Fair Use, 14 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 79 (1996)

Zissu, Funny Is Fair: The Case for According Increased Value to Humor in Copyright Fair Use Analysis, 55 J. Copyright Soc’y 393 (2008)

Fair Use and Technology

Band, Copyright Owners v. the Google Print Library Project, 17 Ent. L. Rev. 21 (2006)

Carpenter, Space Age Love Song: The Mix Tape in a Digital Universe, 11 Nev. L.J. 44 (2010)

J. Cohen, Reverse Engineering and the Rise of Electronic Vigilantism: Intellec-tual Property Implications of “Lock-Out” Programs, 68 S. Cal. L. Rev. 1091 (1995)

Douma, Fair Use and Misuse: Two Guards at the Intersection of Copyrights and Trade Secret Rights Held in Software and Firmware, 42 IDEA 37 (2002)

Durdik, Reverse Engineering as a Fair Use Defense to Software Copyright Infringement, 34 Jurimetrics J. 451 (1994)

Fraser, The Conflict Between the First Amendment and Copyright Law and Its Impact on the Internet, 16 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 1 (1998)

Goldberg, Now that the Future Has Arrived, Maybe the Law Should Take a Look: Multimedia Technology and Its Interaction With the Fair Use Doctrine, 44 Am. U.L. Rev. 919 (1995)

Ignatin, Let the Hackers Hack: Allowing the Reverse Engineering of Copyrighted Computer Programs to Achieve Compatibility, 140 U. Pa. L. Rev. 1999 (1992)

Lee, Technological Fair Use, 83 S. Cal. L. Rev. 797 (2010)

McJohn, Fair Use of Copyrighted Software, 28 Rutgers L.J. 593 (1997)

McManis, Intellectual Property Protection and Reverse Engineering of Computer Programs in the United States and the European Community, 8 High Tech. L.J. 25 (1993)

Menell, Knowledge Accessibility and Preservation Policy for the Digital Age, 44 Hous. L. Rev. 1013 (2007)

Morrow, Practicing Reverse Engineering in an Era of Growing Constraints Under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act and Other Provisions, 14 Alb. L.J. Sci. & Tech. 1 (2003)

Owen, Interfaces and Interoperablity in Lotus v. Borland: A Market Oriented Approach to the Fair Use Doctrine, 64 Fordham L. Rev. 2381 (1996)

Parchomovsky & Goldman, Fair Use Harbors, 93 Va. L. Rev. 1483 (2007)

Perkins, Encryption Use: Law and Anarchy on the Digital Frontier, 41 Hous. L. Rev. 1625 (2005)

Samuelson, Fair Use for Computer Programs and Other Copyrightable Works in Digital Form: The Implications of Sony, Galoob and Sega, 1 J. Intell. Prop. L. 49 (1993)

Samuelson, The Generativity of Sony v. Universal: The Intellectual Property Legacy of Justice Blackmun, 74 Fordham L. Rev. 1831 (2006)

Samuelson & Scotchmer, The Law and Economics of Reverse Engineering, 111 Yale L.J. 1575 (2002)

Szymanski, Audio Pastiche: Digital Sampling, Intermediate Copying, Fair Use, 3 UCLA Ent. L. Rev. 271 (1996)

Toedt, Oh, Pretty Woman: Muddying Software Copyright Even Further with “Transformative Fair Use”, 11 Computer L. 15 (1994)

Travis, Estimating the Economic Impact of Mass Digitalization Projects on Copyright Holders: Evidence from the Google Book Search Litigation, 57 J. Copyright Soc’y 907 (2010)

Varmer, Photoduplication of Copyrighted Materials by Libraries, Copyright Law Revision Study No. 15 (1960)

Williams, Can Reverse Engineering of Software Ever Be Fair Use? Application of Campbell’s “Transformative Use” Concept, 71 Wash. L. Rev. 255 (1996)

Fair Use in Corporations and Classrooms

K. Crews, Copyright Law for Librarians and Educators (3rd ed. 2012)

L. Gasaway, Copyright Questions and Answers for Information Professionals: From the Columns of Against the Grain (2012)

P. Jaszi, P. Adler, P. Aufderheide & B. Butler, Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Academic and Research Libraries (2012)

Band, The Long and Winding Road to the Google Books Settlement, 9 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 227 (2010)

Bartow, Educational Fair Use in Copyright: Reclaiming the Right to Copy Freely, 60 U. Pitt. L. Rev. 149 (1998)

Bezanson, Scholarship and Fair Use, 33 Colum. J.L. & Arts 409 (2010)

Bunker, Advertising and Appropriation: Copyright and Fair Use in Advertising, 54 J. Copyright Soc’y 167 (2007)

Crews, Copyright at a Turning Point: Corporate Responses to the Changing Environment, 3 J. Intell. Prop. L. 2177 (1996)

Dratler, To Copy or Not to Copy: The Educator’s Dilemma, 19 J.L. & Educ. 1 (1990)

Feliu & Frazer, Embedded Librarians: Teaching Legal Research as a Lawyering Skill, 61 J. Legal Educ. 540 (2012)

Gasaway, Values Conflict in the Digital Environment: Librarians Versus Copyright Holders, 24 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 115 (2000)

Ginsburg, Reproduction of Protected Works for University Research or Teaching, 39 J. Copyright Soc’y 181 (1992)

Gorman, Copyright Conflicts on the University Campus, 40 J. Copyright Soc’y 291 (2000)

Grimmelman, The Elephantine Google Books Settlement, 58 J. Copyright Soc’y 497 (2011)

D. Hansen, A State Law Approach to Preserving Fair Use in Academic Libraries, 22 Fordham Intell. Prop. Media & Ent. L.J. 1 (2011)

Hirtle, Research, Libraries, and Fair Use: the Gentlemen’s Agreement of 1935, 53 J. Copyright Soc’y 545 (2006)

Issacs, The Highest Form of Flattery?: Application of the Fair Use Defense Against Copyright Claims for Unauthorized Appropriation of Litigation Documents, 71 Mo. L. Rev. 391 (2006)

Jaszi, Fair Use and Education: The Way Forward, 25 Law & Literature 33 (2013)

Kasunic, Fair Use and the Educator’s Right To Photocopy Copyrighted Material For Classroom Use, 19 J.C. & U.L. 271 (1993)

Kreiss, Copyright Fair Use of Standardized Tests, 48 Rutgers L. Rev. 1043 (1996)

Miller, Coursepacks & Copyright: Fair Use in Princeton University Press v. Michigan Document Services, 23 J. C. & U. L. 525 (1997)

Miller, Corporate Copyright Infringers Beware: Systematic Unauthorized Photocopying By For-Profit Corporations Does Not Constitute Fair Use: American Geophysical Union v. Texaco, Inc., 30 Creighton L. Rev. 1521 (1997)

Patry, American Geophysical Union v. Texaco, Inc.: Copyright and Corporate Photocopying, 61 Brooklyn L. Rev. 429 (1995)

Patterson, Regents Guide to Understanding Copyright and Educational Fair Use, 5 J. Intell. Prop. L. 243 (1997)

Simon, Teaching Without Infringement: A New Model for Educational Fair Use, 20 Fordham I.P., Media & Ent. L.J. 453 (2010)

Ster, Photocopying & Fair Use: Exploring the Market for Scientific Journal Articles, 30 Ind. L. Rev. 33 (1997)

Thau, Copyright, Privacy, and Fair Use, 24 Hofstra L. Rev. 179 (1995)

Thornburg, The Impact of Copyright Law on Distance Education Programs: How Fair Use and the CONFU Guidelines May Shape the Future of Academia, 27 S. Ill. U. L.J. 321 (2003)

Tutterow, Copyright Issues at the Unit Level: Seeing Through the Fog of Law, 2011 Army L. 26 (2011)

Weinberg, The Photocopying Revolution and the Copyright Crisis, 38 Pub. Interest 99 (1975)

Fair Use and Copyright Policy

K. McLeod & P. DiCola (with J. Toomey & K. Thomson), Creative License: The Law and Culture of Digital Sampling (2011)

K. McLeod & R. Kuenzli (eds.), Cutting Across Media: Appropriation Art, Interventionist Collage, and Copyright Law (2011)

Bambauer, Faulty Math: The Economics of Legalizing the Grey Album, 59 Ala. L. Rev. 345 (2008)

Band, The Impact of Substantial Compliance with Copyright Exceptions on Fair Use, 59 J Copyright Soc’y 453 (2012)

Bartow, Libraries in a Digital and Aggressively Copyrighted World: Retaining Patron Access through Changing Technologies, 62 Ohio St. L.J. 821 (2001)

T. Bell, Fair Use vs. Fared Use: The Impact of Automated Rights Management on Copyright’s Fair Use Doctrine, 76 N.C. L. Rev. 557 (1998)

Carroll, Fixing Fair Use, 85 N.C. L. Rev. 1087 (2007)

Chander & Sunder, Everyone’s A Superhero: A Cultural Theory of ‘Mary Sue’ Fan Fiction as Fair Use, 95 Cal. L. Rev. 597 (2007)

J. Cohen, Comment: Copyright’s Public-Private Distinction (Response to article by Jessica Litman in Law Technology and the Arts Symposium: “Copyright and Personal Copying: Sony v. Universal Studios Twenty-One Years Later”), 55 Case W. Res. L. Rev. 963 (2005)

J. Cohen, Intellectual Privacy and Censorship of the Internet, 8 Seton Hall Const. L.J. 693 (1998)

J. Cohen, The Place of the User in Copyright Law, 74 Fordham L. Rev. 347 (2005)

Craig, The Development of Internet Education and the Role of Copyright Law, 40 J. Copyright Soc’y 75 (2000)

Crews, The Law of Fair Use and the Illusion of Fair-Use Guidelines, 62 Ohio St. L.J. 599 (2001)

Dam, Self-Help in the Digital Jungle, 28 J. Legal Stud. 393 (1999)

Denicola, Mostly Dead? Copyright Law in the New Millennium, 40 J. Copyright Soc’y 193 (2000)

Donaldson, Refuge from the Storm: A Fair Use Safe Harbor for Non-Fiction Works, 59 J. Copyright Soc’y 477 (2012)

Dougherty, All the World’s Not a Stooge: The “Transformativeness” Test for Analyzing a First Amendment Defense to a Right of Publicity Claim Against Distribution of a Work of Art, 27 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 1 (2003)

Elliot, Copyright Fair Use and Private Ordering: Are Copyright Holders and the Copyright Law Fanatical for Fansites?, 11 DePaul-LCA J. Art & Ent. L. 329 (2001)

Gervais, Making Copyright Whole: A Principled Approach to Copyright Exceptions and Limitations, 5 U. Ottowa L. & Tech. J. 1 (2008)

Gibson, Risk Aversion and Rights Accretion in Intellectual Property Law, 116 Yale L.J. 882 (2007)

Gold, Fair Use and the First Amendment: Corporate Control of Copyright is Stifling Documentary-Making and Thwarting the Aims of the First Amendment, 15 U. Balt. L.J. 1 (2006)

Goldstein, Fair Use in a Changing World, 50 J. Copyright Soc’y 133 (2003)

Gordon, Excuse and Justification in the Law of Fair Use: Transactions Costs Have Always Been Part of the Story, 50 J. Copyright Soc’y 149 (2003)

Gorman, Copyright Conflicts on the University Campus, 40 J. Copyright Soc’y 291 (2000)

Heide, Copyright in the EU and U.S.: What “Access-Right”?, 48 J. Copyright Soc’y 363 (2001)

Hughes, Fair Use Across Time, 50 U.C.L.A. L. Rev. 775 (2003)

Jamar, Religious Use of Copyrighted Works After Smith, RFRA, and Eldred, 32 Cardozo L. Rev. 1879 (2011)

Jaszi, Copyright, Fair Use and Motion Pictures, 2007 Utah L. Rev. 715

Jaszi, Getting to Best Practices: A Personal Voyage Around Fair Use, 57 J. Copyright Soc’y 315 (2010)

Landau, Copyright, the First Amendment, and the Right of Publicity: The Expansion of “Transformative Uses”, 21 No. 3 Computer & Internet L. 13 (2004)

Litman, The Sony Paradox, 55 Case. W. Res. L. Rev. 917 (2005)

Leaffer, The Uncertain Future of Fair Use in a Global Information Marketplace, 62 Ohio St. L.J. 849 (2001)

Leland, All’s Fair in Love and News: How the Current Application of the Fair Use Doctrine Favors the Traditional Media over Amateur Providers of News Content, 8 Wake Forest Intell. Prop. L.J. 226 (2008)

Liu, Fair Use, Notice Failure, and the Limits of Copyright as Property, 96 B. U. L. Rev. 833 (2016)

Long, Mashed Up Videos and Broken Down Copyright: Changing Copyright to Promote the First Amendment Values of Transformative Video, 60 Okla. L. Rev. 317 (2007)

Madison, A Pattern-Oriented Approach to Fair Use, 45 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 1525 (2004)

Menell & Depoorter, Using Fee Shifting to Promote Fair Use and Fair Licensing, 102 Cal. L. Rev. 53 (2014)

D. Nimmer, A Modest Proposal to Streamline Fair Use Determinations, 24 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 11 (2006)

D. Nimmer, A Riff on Fair Use in the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, 148 U. Pa. L. Rev. 673 (2000)

Okediji, Givers, Takers, and Other Kinds of Users: A Fair Use Doctrine for Cyberspace, 53 Fla. L. Rev. 107 (2001)

Okediji, Toward an International Fair Use Doctrine, 39 Colum. J. Transnat’l L. 75 (2000)

Parchomovsky, Beyond Fair Use, 96 Cornell L. Rev. 91 (2010)

Parchomovsky & Goldman, Fair Use Harbors, 93 Va. L. Rev. 1483 (2007)

Patterson & Thomas, Personal Use in Copyright Law: An Unrecognized Constitutional Right, 50 J. Copyright Soc’y 475 (2003)

Samuelson, Possible Futures of Fair Use, 90 Wash. L. Rev. 815 (2015)

Tehranian, Et Tu, Fair Use? The Triumph of Natural-Law Copyright, 38 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 465 (2005)

Tushnet, My Fair Ladies: Sex, Gender, and Fair Use in Copyright, 15 Am. U.J. Gender Soc. Pol’y & L. 273 (2007)

Von Lohmann, Fair Use as Innovation Policy, 23 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 829 (2008)

Affirmative Copyright Defenses

J. Mazzone, Copyfraud and Other Abuses of Intellectual Property Law (2011)

Aylward, Copyright Law: The Fourth Circuit’s Extension of the Misuse Doctrine to the Area of Copyright: A Misuse of the Misuse Doctrine? — Lasercomb America, Inc. v. Reynolds, 17 U. Dayton L. Rev. 661 (1992)

Band & Levine, You Say Misuse, I Say Fair Use … , 13 Computer L. 10 (1996)

T. Bell, Codifying Copyright’s Misuse Defense, 2007 Utah L. Rev. 573

Childers, State Sovereign Immunity and the Protection of Intellectual Property: Do Recent Congressional Attempts to “Level the Playing Field” Run Afoul of Current Eleventh Amendment Jurisprudence and Other Constitutional Doctrines?, 82 N.C. L. Rev. 1067 (2004)

Clifford, Simultaneous Copyright and Trade Secret Claims: Can the Copyright Misuse Defense Prevent Constitutional Doublethink?, 104 Dick. L. Rev. 247 (2000)

Cotter, IP Misuse and Innovation Harm, 96 Iowa. L. Rev. 52 (2011)

Cotter, Misuse, 44 Hous. L. Rev. 901 (2007)

Davidson & Engisch, Copyright Misuse and Fraud on the Copyright Office: An Escape for Infringers?, 13 Computer Law. 14 (1996)

Didwania, The Defense of Laches in Copyright Infringement Claims, 75 U. Chi. L. Rev. 1227 (2008)

Fine, Misuse and Antitrust Defenses to Copyright Infringement Actions, 17 Hastings L.J. 315 (1965)

Frischmann & Moylan, The Evolving Common Law Doctrine of Copyright Misuse: A Unified Theory and Its Application to Software, 15 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 865 (2000)

Geraldi, Misuse: An Equitable Defense to Intellectual Property Infringement Actions, 14 Hastings Comm. & Ent. L.J. 235 (1992)

Hanna, Misusing Antitrust: The Search for Functional Copyright Misuse Standards, 46 Stan. L. Rev. 401 (1994)

Heald, Payment Demands for Spurious Copyrights: Four Causes of Action, 1 J. Intell. Prop. L. 259 (1994)

Hovenkamp, Innovation and the Domain of Competition Policy, 60 Ala. L. Rev. 103 (2009)

Judge, Rethinking Copyright Misuse, 37 Intell. Prop. L. Rev. 607 (2005)

Leaffer, Engineering Competitive Policy and Copyright Misuse, 19 Dayton L. Rev. 1087 (1994)

M. Lemley, Antitrust Counterclaims in Patent and Copyright Infringement Cases, 3 Tex. Intell. Prop. L.J. 1 (1994)

Mazzone, Copyfraud, 81 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 1026 (2006)

Olson, First Amendment-Based Copyright Misuse, 52 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 537 (2010)

Paredes, Copyright Misuse and Tying, Will Courts Stop Misusing Misuse?, 9 High Tech. L.J. 271 (1994).

Susman, Tying”, Refusals to License, and Copyright Misuse: The Patent Misuse Model, 36 J. Copyright Soc’y 300 (1989)

Webb & Locke, Intellectual Property Misuse: Developments in the Misuse Doctrine, 4 Harv. J.L. & Tech. 257 (1991)

Chapter 11

REMEDIES, PREEMPTION, AND RELATED BODIES OF LAW

Reference Works

H. Abrams, The Law of Copyright §§ 6.1 to 6.64, 17.1 to 17.67, 18.1 to 18.41 (2013)

P. Goldstein, Goldstein on Copyright §§ 13.0 to 13.4, 14.0 to 14.4, 17.0 to 17.22, 17.25 (2013)

M. Leaffer, Understanding Copyright Law 8.39, 9.10 to 9.17, 11.01 to 11.11 (5th ed. 2010)

M. Nimmer & D. Nimmer, Nimmer on Copyright §§ 8C.01 to 8C.05, 14.01 to 14.10, 15.01 to 15.07, 19D.01 to 19D.10 (2013)

W. Patry, Patry on Copyright §§ 18:1 to 18:60, 20:1 to 20:58, 22:1 to 22:223 (2013)

Remedies Under Federal Law

Alexander, Discretionary Power to Impound and Destroy Infringing Articles: An Historical Perspective, 29 J. Copyright Soc’y 479 (1982)

Amend, The Geographical Scope of Injunctions in Intellectual Property Cases, 77 Trademark Rep. 49 (1987)

Barker, Grossly Excessive Penalties in the Battle Against Illegal File-Sharing: The Troubling Effects of Aggregating Minimum Statutory Damages of Copyright Infringement, 83 Tex. L. Rev. (2004)

Berg, Remedying the Statutory Damages Remedy for Secondary Copyright Infringement Liability: Balancing Copyright and Innovation in the Digital Age, 56 J. Copyright Soc’y 265 (2009)

Blair & Cotter, An Economic Analysis of Damages Rules in Intellectual Property Law, 39 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 1585 (1998)

Bridy, Copyright Policymaking as Procedural Democratic Process: A Discourse-Theoretic Perspective on ACTA, SOPA and PIPA, 30 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 153 (2012)

Brown, Civil Remedies for Intellectual Property Invasions, 55 Law & Contemp. Probs. 45 (1992)

Brown, The Operation of the Damages Provisions of the Copyright Law: An Exploratory Study, Copyright Law Revision Study No. 23 (1958)

Ciolino, Reconsidering Restitution in Copyright, 48 Emory L.J. 1 (1999)

Coblenz, Intellectual Property Crimes, 9 Alb. L.J. Sci. & Tech. 235 (1999)

Donnini, Downloading, Distributing, and Damages in the Digital Domain: The Need for Copyright Remedy Reform, 29 Santa Clara Computer & High Tech. L.J. 413 (2013)

Erekosima & Koosed, Intellectual Property Crimes, 41 Am. Crim. L. Rev. 809 (2004)

Fonstad, Protecting Fair Use with Fogerty: Toward a New Dual Standard, 40 U. Mich. J.L. Reform 623 (2007)

Garfield, Calibrating Copyright Statutory Damages to Promote Speech, 38 Fla. St. U. L. Rev. 1 (2010)

Goldman, A Road to No Warez: The No Electronic Theft Act and Criminal Copyright Infringement, 82 Or. L. Rev. 369 (2003)

Gomez-Arostegui, What History Teaches Us About Copyright Injunctions and the Inadequate-Remedy-at-Law Requirement, 81 S. Cal. L. Rev. 1197 (2008)

Greene, Motion Picture Copyright Infringement and the Presumption of Irreparable Harm: Toward a Reevaluation of the Standard for Preliminary Injunctive Relief, 31 Rutgers L.J. 173 (1999)

Hardy, Criminal Copyright Infringement, 11 Wm. & Mary Bill Rts. J. (2002)

Hyde, A Reckless Disregard of the Ordinary Infringer?: Moving Toward A Balanced and Uniform Standard for Willful Copyright Infringement, 35 U. Tol. L. Rev. 377 (2003)

Jaszi, 505 and All That — The Defendant’s Dilemma, 55 Law & Contemp. Probs. 107 (1993)

Klewin, Reconciling Federal Circuit Choice of Law with eBay v. MercExchange‘s Abrogation of the Presumption of Irreparable Harm in Copyright Preliminary Injunctions, 80 Fordham L. Rev. 2113 (2012)

LaFrance, Graduated Response by Industry Compact: Piercing the Black Box, 30 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 165 (2012)

Latman, Preliminary Injunctions in Patent, Trademark and Copyright Cases, 60 Trademark Rep. 506 (1970)

M. Lemley & Volokh, Freedom of Speech and Injunctions in Intellectual Property Cases, 48 Duke L.J. 147 (1998)

Lindenberg-Woods, Smoking Revolver: Criminal Copyright Infringement, 27 Bull. Copyright Soc’y 63 (1979)

Lipton, Cyberspace, Exceptionalism, and Innocent Copyright Infringement, 13 Vand. J. Ent. & Tech. L. 767 (2011)

Liu, Copyright Injunctions After eBay: An Empirical Study, 16 Lewis & Clark L. Rev. 215 (2012)

Loren, Digitization, Commodification, Criminalization: The Evolution of Criminal Copyright Infringement and the Importance of the Willfulness Requirement, 77 Wash. U. L. Q. 835 (1999)

Marcus & D. Nimmer, Forum on Attorney’s Fees in Copyright Cases: Are We Running Through the Jungle Now or Is the Old Man Still Stuck Down the Road?, 39 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 65 (1997)

Moohr, The Crime of Copyright Infringement: An Inquiry Based on Morality, Harm, and Criminal Theory, 83 B.U. L. Rev. 731 (2003)

D. Nimmer, Repeat Infringers, 52 J. Copyright Soc’y 167 (2005)

Noonan & Raskin, Intellectual Property Crimes, 38 Am. Crim. L. Rev. 971 (2001)

Oakes, Copyrights and Copyremedies: Unfair Use and Injunctions, 38 J. Copyright Soc’y 63 (1990)

Oksanen & Valimaki, Theory of Deterrence and Individual Behavior: Can Lawsuits Control File Sharing on the Internet?, 3 Rev. L. & Econ. 1156 (2007)

Ossola, Registration and Remedies: Recovery of Attorney’s Fees and Statutory Damages Under the Copyright Reform Act, 13 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 559 (1995)

Owens, Impoundment Proceedings Under the Copyright Act: The Constitutional Infirmities, 14 Hofstra L. Rev. 211 (1985)

Peterson, The Knowledge to Act: Border Enforcement of Section 337 Exclusion Orders and the Need for Exclusion Order Disclosure Regulations, 17 Fed. Cir. B.J. 607 (2008)

Rusch, Sentencing Guidelines for Copyright Pirates in the United States and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region: A Comparative Perspective, 26 Fordham Int’l L.J. 315 (2003)

Samuelson & Wheatland, Statutory Damages in Copyright Law: A Remedy in Need of Reform, 51 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 439 (2009)

Saunders, Criminal Copyright Infringement and the Copyright Felony Act, 71 Denv. U. L. Rev. 671 (1994)

Schiffman, Goldman & Pomeroy, Intellectual Property Crimes (Copyright), 49 Am. Crim. L. Rev. 954 (2012)

Thomas, Willful Copyright Infringement: In Search of a Standard, 65 Wash. L. Rev. 903 (1990)

Trunko, Remedies for Copyright Infringement: Respecting the First Amendment, 89 Colum. L. Rev. 1940 (1989)

Woodin, Copyrights and State Liability, 76 Iowa L. Rev. 701 (1991)

Y’Barbo, On Fee-Shifting and the Protection of Copyright, 44 J. Copyright Soc’y 23 (1996)

Preemption

Abrams, Copyright, Misappropriation, and Preemption: Constitutional and Statutory Limits of State Protection, 1983 Sup. Ct. Rev. 509

Baird, Common Law Intellectual Property and the Legacy of International News Service v. Associated Press, 50 U. Chi. L. Rev. 411 (1983)

Bartow, Open Access, Law, Knowledge, Copyrights, Dominance and Subordination, 10 Lewis & Clark L. Rev. 869 (2006)

Bauer, Addressing the Incoherency of the Preemption Provision of the Copyright Act of 1976, 10 Vand. J. Ent. & Tech. L. 1 (2007)

T. Bell, Misunderstanding Dastar: How the Supreme Court Unwittingly Revolutionized Copyright Preemption, 65 Md. L. Rev. 206 (2006)

Bohannan, Copyright Preemption of Contracts, 67 Md. L. Rev. 616 (2008)

Bonser, Preemption of “Shrink-Wrap” Legislation by the Copyright Act, 37 Copyright L. Symp. (ASCAP) 127 (1990)

Brown, Publication and Preemption in Copyright Law: Elegiac Reflections on Goldstein v. California, 22 UCLA L. Rev. 1022 (1975)

Brown, Unification: A Cheerful Requiem for Common Law Copyright, 24 UCLA L. Rev. 1070 (1977)

Carroll, Creative Commons and the New Intermediaries, 2006 Mich. St. L. Rev. 45 (2006)

J. Cohen, Copyright and the Jurisprudence of Self-Help, 13 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 1089 (1998)

Comment, Federal Copyright and State Trade Secret Protection: The Case for Partial Preemption, 33 Am. U. L. Rev. 667 (1984)

Dabney, State Law Protection of Intellectual Creations: Privacy and Preemption, 38 Syracuse L. Rev. 653 (1987)

Diamond, Preemption of State Law, 25 Bull. Copyright Soc’y 204 (1978)

Douma, The Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act and the Issue of Preemption of Contractual Provisions Prohibiting Reverse Engineering, Disassembly, or Decompilation, 11 Alb. L.J. Sci. & Tech. 249 (2001)

Dreyfuss, Do You Want to Know a Trade Secret? How Article 2B Will Make Licensing Trade Secrets Easier (But Innovation More Difficult), 87 Cal. L. Rev. 191 (1999)

Dusollier, The Master’s Tools v. the Master’s House: Creative Commons v. Copyright, 29 Colum. J.L & Arts 271 (2006)

Easterbrook, Contract and Copyright, 42 Hous. L. Rev. 953 (2005)

Elkin-Koren, Copyrights in Cyberspace — Rights Without Laws?, 73 Chi.-Kent. L. Rev. 1155 (1998)

Elkin-Koren, What Contracts Cannot Do: The Limits of Private Ordering in Facilitating a Creative Commons, 74 Fordham L. Rev. 375 (2005)

Fellmeth, Control Without Interest: State Law Of Assignment, Federal Preemption, and the Intellectual Property License, 6 Va. J.L. & Tech. 8 (2001)

Fetter, Copyright Revision and the Preemption of State “Misappropriation” Law: A Study in Judicial and Congressional Interaction, 27 Copyright L. Symp. (ASCAP) 1 (1982)

Fisher, Property and Contract on the Internet, 73 Chi.-Kent. L. Rev. 1203 (1998)

Francione, The California Art Preservation Act and Federal Preemption by the 1976 Act — Equivalence and Actual Conflict, 31 Copyright L. Symp. (ASCAP) 105 (1984)

Froomkin, Article 2B as Legal Software for Electronic Contracting Operating System or Trojan Horse?, 13 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 1023 (1998)

Gardiner, Bowers v. Baystate Technologies: Using the Shrinkwrap Licence to Circumvent the Copyright Act and Escape Federal Preemption, 11 U. Miami Bus. L. Rev. 105 (2003)

Garon, Playing in the Virtual Arena: Avatars, Publicity, and Identity Reconceptualized Through Virtual Worlds and Computer Games, 11 Chap. L. Rev. 465 (2008)

Gibbons, Stop Mucking Up Copyright Law: A Proposal for a Federal Common Law of Contract, 35 Rutgers L.J. (2004)

Ginsburg, Authors as “Licensors” of “Informational Rights” Under U.C.C. Article 2B, 13 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 945 (1998)

Goldstein, Copyright and Its Substitutes, 1997 Wis. L. Rev. 865

Goldstein, Federal System Ordering of the Copyright Interest, 69 Colum. L. Rev. 49 (1969)

Goldstein, Preempted State Doctrines, Involuntary Transfers and Compulsory Licenses: Testing the Limits of Copyright, 24 UCLA L. Rev. 1107 (1977)

Greene, Intellectual Property Expansion: The Good, the Bad, and the Right of Publicity, 11 Chap. L. Rev. 521 (2008)

Hardy, Contracts, Copyright and Preemption in a Digital World, 1 Rich. J.L. & Tech. 2 (1995)

Heald, Federal Intellectual Property Law and the Economics of Preemption, 76 Iowa L. Rev. 959 (1991)

Hyde & Sharrock, A Decade Down the Road But Still Running Through the Jungle: A Critical Review of Post — Fogerty Fee Awards, 52 U. Kan. L. Rev. 467 (2004)

Jorgensen & McIntyre-Cecil, The Evolution of the Preemption Doctrine and Its Effect on Common Law Remedies, 19 Idaho L. Rev. 85 (1983)

Karjala, Federal Preemption of Shrinkwrap and On-Line Licenses, 22 U. Dayton L. Rev. 511 (1997)

Kobayashi & Ribstein, Uniformity, Choice of Law and Software Sales, 8 Geo. Mason L. Rev. 261 (1999)

M. Lemley, Beyond Preemption: The Law and Policy of Intellectual Property Licensing, 87 Cal. L. Rev. 111 (1999)

M. Lemley, Intellectual Property and Shrinkwrap Licenses, 68 S. Cal. L. Rev. 1239 (1995)

Litman, The Tales that Article 2B Tells, 13 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 931 (1998)

Loren, Building a Reliable Semicommons of Creative Works: Enforcement of Creative Commons Licenses and Limited Abandonment of Copyright, 14 Geo. Mason L. Rev. 271 (2007)

Madison, Legal-Ware: Contract and Copyright in the Digital Age, 67 Fordham L. Rev. 1025 (1998)

Maher, The Shrink-Wrap License: Old Problems in a New Wrapper, 34 J. Copyright Soc’y 292 (1987)

McGowan, Free Contracting, Fair Competition, and Article 2B: Some Reflections on Federal Competition Policy, Information Transactions, and “Aggressive Neutrality”, 13 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 1173 (1998)

McNamara, Copyright Preemption: Effecting the Analysis Prescribed by Section 301, 24 B.C. L. Rev. 963 (1983)

Merges, Contracting into Liability Rules: Institutions Supporting Transactions in Intellectual Property Rights, 84 Cal. L. Rev. 1293 (1997)

Moffat, Super-Copyright: Contracts, Preemption, and the Structure of Copyright Policymaking, 41 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 45 (2007)

Myers, The Restatement’s Rejection of the Misappropriation Tort: A Victory for the Public Domain, 47 S.C. L. Rev. 673 (1996)

D. Nimmer, E. Brown & G. Frischling, The Metamorphosis of Contract into Expand, 87 Cal. L. Rev. 17 (1999)

R. Nimmer, Article 2B: An Introduction, 16 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 211 (1997)

R. Nimmer, Breaking Barriers: The Relation Between Contract and Intellectual Property Law, 13 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 827 (1998)

R. Nimmer, Electronic Commerce: New Paradigms in Information Law, 31 Idaho L. Rev. 937 (1995)

R. Nimmer, Electronic Contracting: Legal Issues, 14 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 211 (1996)

R. Nimmer, Images and Contract Law — What Law Applies to Transactions in Information?, 36 Hous. L. Rev. 1 (1999)

R. Nimmer, Intangible Contracts: Thought of Hubs, Spokes, and Reinvigorating Article 2, 35 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 1337 (1994)

R. Nimmer, International Information Transactions: An Essay on Law in an Information Society, 26 Brooklyn J. Int’l L. 5 (2000)

R. Nimmer, Licensing on the Global Information Infrastructure: Disharmony in Cyberspace, 16 Nw. J. Int’l L. & Bus. 224 (1995)

R. Nimmer, Through the Looking Glass: What Courts and UCITA Say About the Scope of Contract Law in the Information Age, 38 Duq. L. Rev. 255 (2000)

R. Nimmer, UCITA and the Continuing Evolution of Digital Licensing Law, 21 No. 2 Computer & Internet L. 10 (2004)

R. Nimmer, D. Cohn & E. Kirsch, Licensing Contracts Under Article 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code: A Proposal, 19 Rutgers Computer & Tech. L.J. 281 (1993)

Olson, Common Law Misappropriation in the Digital Era, 64 Mo. L. Rev. 837 (1999)

O’Rourke, Copyright Preemption After the ProCD Case: A Market-Based Approach, 12 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 53 (1997)

O’Rourke, Drawing the Boundary Between Copyright and Contract: Copyright Preemption of Software License Terms, 45 Duke L.J. 479 (1995)

O’Rourke, Rethinking Remedies at the Intersection of Intellectual Property and Contract: Toward a Unified Body of Law, 82 Iowa L. Rev. 1137 (1997)

Perzanowski, The Penumbral Public Domain: Constitutional Limits on Quasi-Copyright Legislation, 10 U. Pa. J. Const. L. 1081 (2008)

Reichman & Franklin, Privately Legislated Intellectual Property Rights: Reconciling Freedom of Contract With Public Good Uses of Information, 147 U. Pa. L. Rev. 875 (1999)

Rice, Copyright and Contract: Preemption After Bowers v. Baystate, 9 Roger Williams U.L. Rev. 595 (2004)

Rice, Public Goods, Private Contract and Public Policy: Federal Preemption of Software License Prohibitions Against Reverse Engineering, 53 U. Pitt. L. Rev. 543 (1992)

Romm, The Fine Art of Preemption: Section 301 and the Copyright Act of 1976, 60 Or. L. Rev. 287 (1981)

Rothman, Copyright Preemption and the Right of Publicity, 36 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 199 (2002)

Sandeen, Kewanee Revisited: Returning to First Principles of Intellectual Property Law to Determine the Issue of Federal Preemption, 12 Marq. Intell. Prop. L. Rev. 299 (2008)

Schechter, The Unfairness of Click-On Software Licenses, 46 Wayne L. Rev. 173 (2000)

Shipley, Refusing to Rock the Boat, The Sears/Compco Preemption Doctrine Applied to Bonito Boats v. Thundercraft, 25 Wake Forest L. Rev. 385 (1990)

Shipley, Three Strikes and They’re Out at the Old Ball Game: Preemption of Performers’ Rights of Publicity Under the Copyright Act of 1976, 20 Ariz. St. L.J. 369 (1988)

Shipley & Hay, Protecting Research: Copyright, Common-Law Alternatives and Federal Pre-emption, 63 N.C. L. Rev. 125 (1984)

Symposium, Intellectual Property and Contract Law for the Information Age: The Impact of Article 2B of the Uniform Commercial Code on the Future of Information and Commerce, 87 Cal. L. Rev. 1 (1999)

Tussey, UCITA, Copyright, and Capture, 21 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 319 (2003)

Wiley, Bonito Boats: Uninformed But Mandatory Innovation Policy, 1989 Sup. Ct. Rev. 283

Related Bodies of State and Federal Law (see also Chapter 1)

Andrews, Reversing Copyright Misuse: Enforcing Contractual Prohibitions on Software Reverse Engineering, 41 Hous. L. Rev. 975 (2004)

Band & Schruers, Datstar, Attribution, and Plagiarism, 33 AIPLA Q.J. 1 (2005)

Barnett, First Amendment Limits on the Right of Publicity, 30 Tort & Ins. L.J. 635 (1995)

Bartholomew, A Right Is Born: Celebrity, Property, and Postmodern Lawmaking, 44 Conn. L. Rev. 301 (2011)

Bartholomew, Protecting the Performers: Setting a New Standard for Character Copyrightability, 41 Santa Clara L. Rev. 341 (2001)

Barrett, The “Law of Ideas” Reconsidered, 71 J. Pat. & Trademark Off. Soc’y 691 (1989)

Beard, Digital Replicas of Celebrities: Copyright, Trademark, and Right of Publicity Issues, 23 U. Ark. Little Rock L. Rev. 197 (2000)

Bloom, Preventing the Misappropriation of Identity: Beyond the Right of Publicity, 13 Hastings Comm. & Ent. L.J. 489 (1991)

Bohrer, Strengthening the Distinction Between Copyright and Trademark: The Supreme Court Takes a Stand, 2003 Duke L. & Tech. Rev. 23 (2003)

Brown, Copyright and Its Upstart Cousins: Privacy, Publicity, Unfair Competition, 33 J. Copyright Soc’y 301 (1986)

Chafee, Unfair Competition, 53 Harv. L. Rev. 1289 (1940)

Dougherty, Foreword: The Right of Publicity Towards a Comparative and International Perspective, 18 Loy. L.A. Ent. L.J. 421 (1998)

Felcher & Rubin, Privacy, Publicity, and the Portrayal of Real People by the Media, 88 Yale L.J. 1577 (1979)

Ginsburg, The Right to Claim Authorship in U.S. Copyright and Trademarks Law, 41 Hous. L. Rev. 263 (2004)

Grady, A Positive Economic Theory of the Right of Publicity, 1 UCLA Ent. L. Rev. 97 (1994)

Haemmerli, Whose Who? The Case for a Kantian Right of Publicity, 49 Duke L.J. 383 (1999)

Hricik, Remedies of the Infringer: The Use By the Infringer of Implied and Common Law Federal Rights, State Law Claims, and Contract to Shift Liability for Infringement of Patents, Copyrights, and Trademarks, 28 Tex. Tech. L. Rev. 1027 (1997)

Hylton, Baseball Cards and the Birth of the Right of Publicity: The Curious Case of Haelen Laboratories v. Topps Chewing Gum, 12 Marq. Sports L.Q. 273 (2001)

Kaplan, Performer’s Right and Copyright: The Capitol Records Case, 69 Harv. L. Rev. 409 (1956)

Karjala, Copyright and Misappropriation, 17 U. Dayton L. Rev. 885 (1992)

Karjala, Misappropriation as a Third Intellectual Property Paradigm, 94 Colum. L. Rev. 2594 (1994)

Kwall, Fame, 73 Ind. L.J. 1 (1997)

Kwall, The Right of Publicity v. the First Amendment: A Property and Liability Rule Analysis, 70 Ind. L.J. 47 (1994)

LaFrance, Something Borrowed, Something New: The Changing Role of Novelty in Idea Proteciton Law, 37 Intell. Prop. L. Rev. 679 (2005)

Leaffer, The Right of Publicity: A Comparative Perspective, 70 Alb. L. Rev. 1357 (2007)

Loren, Slaying the Leather-Winged Demons in the Night: Reforming Copyright Owner Contracting With Clickwrap Misuse, 30 Ohio N.U. L. Rev. 495 (2004)

Madison, The Legitimacy of Open Source and Other Software Licenses, 8 J. Internet L. 1 (2005)

Madison, Reconstructing the Software License, 35 Loy. U. Chi. L.J. 275 (2003)

Malkan, Stolen Photographs: Personality, Publicity, and Privacy, 75 Tex. L. Rev. 779 (1997)

Marks, An Assessment of the Copyright Model in the Right of Publicity Cases, 32 Copyright L. Symp. (ASCAP) 1 (1986)

Mazzone & Moore, The Secret Life of Patents, 48 Washburn L.J. 33 (2008)

McCarthy, The Human Persona as Commercial Property: The Right of Publicity, 19 Colum.-VLA J.L. & Arts 129 (1995)

Mitchell, Take Me out of the Ball Game? U.S. District Court Rejects Proprietary Rights in Player Names and Statistics, 96 Trademark Rep. 1258 (2006)

Moffat, Mutant Copyrights and Backdoor Patents: The Problem of Overlapping Intellectual Property Protection, 19 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 1473 (2004)

M. Nimmer, The Right of Publicity, 19 L. & Contemp. Probs. 203 (1954)

Ochoa, ETW Corp. v. Jireh Publishing, Inc.: Introduction: Tiger Woods and the First Amendment, 22 Whittier L. Rev. 381 (2000)

Ochoa, Introduction: Rights of Attribution, Section 43(a) of the Lanham Act, and the Copyright Public Domain, 24 Whittier L. Rev. 911 (2003)

O’Rourke, Bargaining in the Shadow of Copyright Law, 53 Case West. Res. L. Rev. 605 (2003)

Pagano, “Origin of Goods”: Delving Into Dastar Corp. v. Twentieth Century Fox Films Corp., 19 St. John’s J. Legal Comment. 2421 (2005)

Patterson, Copyright Overextended: A Preliminary Inquiry into the Need for a Federal Statute of Unfair Competition, 17 U. Dayton L. Rev. 385 (1992)

Raskind, The Misappropriation Doctrine as a Competitive Norm of Intellectual Property Law, 75 Minn. L. Rev. 875 (1991)

Saunders, A Crusade in the Public Domain: The Dastar Decision, 30 Rutgers Computer & Tech. L.J. 161 (2004)

Sease, Misappropriation is Seventy-Five Years Old: Should We Bury It or Revive It?, 70 N.D. L. Rev. 781 (1994)

Singer, The Right of Publicity: Star Vehicle or Shooting Star?, 10 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 1 (1991)

Tan, Affective Transfer and the Appropriation of Commercial Value: A Cultural Analysis of the Right of Publicity, 9 Va. Sports & Ent. L.J. 272 (2010)

Towse, The Singer or the Song? Developments in Performers’ Rights from the Perspective of a Cultural Economist, 3 Rev. L. & Econ. 1158 (2008)

Volokh, Freedom of Speech and the Right of Publicity, 40 Hous. L. Rev. 903 (2003)

Welkowitz & Ochoa, The Terminator as Eraser: How Arnold Schwarzenegger Used the Right of Publicity to Terminate Non-Defamatory Political Speech, 45 Santa Clara L. Rev. 651 (2005)

Zimmerman, Fitting Publicity Rights into Intellectual Property and Free Speech Theory: Sam, You Made the Pants Too Long!, 10 DePaul-LCA J. Art & Ent. L. & Pol’y 283 (2000)

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s